A Mechanistic Rationale Approach Revealed the Unexpected Chemoselectivity of an Artificial Ru-Dependent Oxidase: A Dual Experimental/Theoretical Approach
Artificial enzymes represent an attractive alternative to design abiotic biocatalysis. EcNikA-Ru1, an artificial metalloenzyme developed by embedding a ruthenium-based catalyst into the cavity of the periplasmic nickel-binding protein NikA, was found to efficiently and selectively transform certain alkenes. The objective of this study was to provide a rationale on the enzymatic function and the unexpected substrate-dependent chemoselectivity of EcNikA-Ru1 thanks to a dual experimental/computational study. We observed that the de novo active site allows the formation of the terminal oxidant via the formation of a ruthenium aquo species that subsequently reacts with the hypervalent iodine of phenyl iodide diacetic acid. The oxidation process relies on a RuIV═O pathway via a two-step reaction with a radical intermediate, resulting in the formation of either a chlorohydrin or an epoxide. The results emphasize the impact of the protein scaffold on the kinetics of the reaction, through (i) the promotion of the starting oxidizing species via the exchange of a CO ligand with a water molecule; and (ii) the control of the substrate orientation on the intermediate structures, formed after the RuIV═O attack. When a Cα attack is preferred, chlorohydrins are formed while an attack on Cβ leads to an epoxide. This work provides evidence that artificial enzymes mimic the behavior of their natural counterparts.
Cross-Linked Artificial Enzyme Crystals as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions
Designing systems that merge the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, enzymology, and molecular catalysis represents the next major goal for sustainable chemistry. Cross-linked enzyme crystals display most of these essential assets (well-designed mesoporous support, protein selectivity, and molecular recognition of substrates). Nevertheless, a lack of reaction diversity, particularly in the field of oxidation, remains a constraint for their increased use in the field. Here, thanks to the design of cross-linked artificial nonheme iron oxygenase crystals, we filled this gap by developing biobased heterogeneous catalysts capable of oxidizing carbon–carbon double bonds. First, reductive O2 activation induces selective oxidative cleavage, revealing the indestructible character of the solid catalyst (at least 30 000 turnover numbers without any loss of activity). Second, the use of 2-electron oxidants allows selective and high-efficiency hydroxychlorination with thousands of turnover numbers. This new technology by far outperforms catalysis using the inorganic complexes alone, or even the artificial enzymes in solution. The combination of easy catalyst synthesis, the improvement of “omic” technologies, and automation of protein crystallization makes this strategy a real opportunity for the future of (bio)catalysis.
Metal: FeLigand type: ---Anchoring strategy: SupramolecularOptimization: ChemicalNotes: Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLEC) as catalysts.