Hemoabzymes: Towards New Biocatalysts for Selective Oxidations
Catalytic antibodies with a metalloporphyrin cofactor or «hemoabzymes», used as models for hemoproteins like peroxidases and cytochrome P450, represent a promising route to catalysts tailored for selective oxidation reactions. A brief overview of the literature shows that until now, the first strategy for obtaining such artificial hemoproteins has been to produce antiporphyrin antibodies, raised against various free-base, N-substituted Sn-, Pd- or Fe-porphyrins. Five of them exhibited, in the presence of the corresponding Fe-porphyrin cofactor, a significant peroxidase activity, with kcat/Km values of 3.7×103–2.9×105 M−1 min−1. This value remained, however, low when compared to that of peroxidases. This strategy has also led to a few models of cytochrome P450. The best of them, raised against a water-soluble tin(IV) porphyrin containing an axial α-naphtoxy ligand, was reported to catalyze the stereoselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides by iodosyl benzene using a Ru(II)-porphyrin cofactor. The relatively low efficiency of the porphyrin–antibody complexes is probably due, at least in part, to the fact that no proximal ligand of Fe has been induced in those antibodies. We then proposed to use, as a hapten, microperoxidase 8 (MP8), a heme octapeptide in which the imidazole side chain of histidine 18 acts as a proximal ligand of the iron atom. This led to the production of seven antibodies recognizing MP8, the best of them, 3A3, binding it with an apparent binding constant of 10−7 M. The corresponding 3A3–MP8 complex was found to have a good peroxidase activity characterized by a kcat/Km value of 2×106 M−1 min−1, which constitutes the best one ever reported for an antibody–porphyrin complex. Active site topology studies suggest that the binding of MP8 occurs through interactions of its carboxylate substituents with amino acids of the antibody and that the protein brings a partial steric hindrance of the distal face of the heme of MP8. Consequently, the use of the 3A3–MP8 complexes for the selective oxidation of substrates, such as sulfides, alkanes and alkenes will be undertaken in the future.