415 publications

415 publications

In Silico Design of Potentially Functional Artificial Metallo-Haloalkane Dehalogenase Containing Catalytic Zinc

Review

Leow, T.C.

3 Biotech, 2018, 10.1007/s13205-018-1333-9


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Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin-Avidin Technology: Enantioselective Catalysis and Beyond

Review

Ward, T.R.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2011, 10.1021/ar100099u


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Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin-Streptavidin Technology: Challenges and Opportunities

Review

Ward, T.R.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2016, 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00235


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Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology: Enzymatic Cascades and Directed Evolution

Review

Ward, T.R.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00618


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Beyond the Second Coordination Sphere: Engineering Dirhodium Artificial Metalloenzymes To Enable Protein Control of Transition Metal Catalysis

Review

Lewis, J.C.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00625


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Beyond the Second Coordination Sphere: Engineering Dirhodium Artificial Metalloenzymes To Enable Protein Control of Transition Metal Catalysis

Review

Lewis, J.C.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00625

Transition metal catalysis is a powerful tool for chemical synthesis, a standard by which understanding of elementary chemical processes can be measured, and a source of awe for those who simply appreciate the difficulty of cleaving and forming chemical bonds. Each of these statements is amplified in cases where the transition metal catalyst controls the selectivity of a chemical reaction. Enantioselective catalysis is a challenging but well-established phenomenon, and regio- or siteselective catalysis is increasingly common. On the other hand, transition-metal-catalyzed reactions are typically conducted under highly optimized conditions. Rigorous exclusion of air and water is common, and it is taken for granted that only a single substrate (of a particular class) will be present in a reaction, a desired site selectivity can be achieved by installing a directing group, and undesired reactivity can be blocked with protecting groups. These are all reasonable synthetic strategies, but they also highlight limits to catalyst control. The utility of transition metal catalysis could be greatly expanded if catalysts possessed the ability to regulate which molecules they encounter and the relative orientation of those molecules. The rapid and widespread adoption of stoichiometric bioorthogonal reactions illustrates the utility of robust reactions that proceed with high selectivity and specificity under mild reaction conditions. Expanding this capability beyond preprogrammed substrate pairs via catalyst control could therefore have an enormous impact on molecular science. Many metalloenzymes exhibit this level of catalyst control, and directed evolution can be used to rapidly improve the catalytic properties of these systems. On the other hand, the range of reactions catalyzed by enzymes is limited relative to that developed by chemists. The possibility of imparting enzyme-like activity, selectivity, and evolvability to reactions catalyzed by synthetic transition metal complexes has inspired the creation of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs). The increasing levels of catalyst control exhibited by ArMs developed to date suggest that these systems could constitute a powerful platform for bioorthogonal transition metal catalysis and for selective catalysis in general. This Account outlines the development of a new class of ArMs based on a prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) scaffold. Studies conducted on POP ArMs containing a covalently linked dirhodium cofactor have shown that POP can impart enantioselectivity to a range of dirhodium-catalyzed reactions, increase reaction rates, and improve the specificity for reaction of dirhodium carbene intermediates with targeted organic substrates over components of cell lysate, including bulk water. Several design features of these ArMs enabled their evolution via random mutagenesis, which revealed that mutations throughout the POP scaffold, beyond the second sphere of the dirhodium cofactor, were important for ArM activity and selectivity. While it was anticipated that the POP scaffold would be capable of encapsulating and thus controlling the selectivity of bulky cofactors, molecular dynamics studies also suggest that POP conformational dynamics plays a role in its unique efficacy. These advances in scaffold selection, bioconjugation, and evolution form the basis of our ongoing efforts to control transition metal reactivity using protein scaffolds with the goal of enabling unique synthetic capabilities, including bioorthogonal catalysis.


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De Novo Design of Four-Helix Bundle Metalloproteins: One Scaffold, Diverse Reactivities

DeGrado, W.F.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00674

De novo protein design represents anattractive approach for testing and extending our under-standing of metalloprotein structure and function. Here, we describe our work on the design of DF (Due Ferri or two-ironin Italian), a minimalist model for the active sites of muchlarger and more complex natural diiron and dimanganeseproteins. In nature, diiron and dimanganese proteins protypi-cally bind their ions in 4-Glu, 2-His environments, and theycatalyze diverse reactions, ranging from hydrolysis, to O2-dependent chemistry, to decarbonylation of aldehydes. In the design of DF, the position of each atom including the backbone, the first-shell ligands, the second-shell hydrogen-bonded groups, and the well-packed hydrophobic core was bespoke using precise mathematical equations and chemical principles. The first member of the DF family was designed to be of minimal size and complexity and yet to display the quintessential elements required for binding the dimetal cofactor. After thoroughly characterizing its structural, dynamic, spectroscopic, and functional properties, we added additional complexity in a rational stepwise manner to achieve increasingly sophisticated catalytic functions, ultimately demonstrating substrate-gated four-electron reduction of O2to water. We also briefly describe the extension of these studies to the design of proteins that bind non biological metal cofactors (a synthetic porphyrin and a tetranuclear cluster), and a Zn2+/proton antiporting membrane protein. Together these studies demonstrate a successful and generally applicable strategy for de novo metalloprotein design, which might indeed mimic the process by which primordial metalloproteins evolved. We began the design process with a highly symmetrical backbone and binding site, by using point-group symmetry to assemble the secondary structures that position the amino acid side chains required for binding. The resulting models provided a rough starting point and initial parameters for the subsequent precise design of thefinal protein using modern methods of computational protein design. Unless the desired site is itself symmetrical, this process requires reduction of the symmetry or lifting it altogether. Nevertheless, the initial symmetrical structure can be helpful to restrain the search space during assembly of the backbone. Finally, the methods described here should be generally applicable to the design of highly stable and robust catalysts and sensors. There is considerable potential in combining the efficiency and knowledge base associated with homogeneous metal catalysis with the programmability, biocompatibility, and versatility of proteins. While the work reported here focuses on testing and learning the principles of natural metalloproteins by designing and studying proteins one at a time, there is also considerable potential for using designed proteins that incorporate both biological and non biological metal ion cofactors for the evolution of novel catalysts.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Due Ferri
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Computational design
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1EC5
Notes: Additional PDB: 1LT1

De Novo Protein Design as a Methodology for Synthetic Bioinorganic Chemistry

Review

Pecoraro, V.L.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2015, 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00175


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Design and Construction of Functional Supramolecular Metalloprotein Assemblies

Review

Tezcan, F.A.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00617


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Design and Construction of Functional Supramolecular Metalloprotein Assemblies

Review

Tezcan, F.A.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00617

Nature puts to use only a small fraction of metal ions in the periodic table. Yet, when incorporated into protein scaffolds, this limited set of metal ions carry out innumerable cellular functions and execute essential biochemical transformations such as photochemical H2O oxidation, O2 or CO2reduction, and N2 fixation, highlighting the outsized importance of metalloproteins in biology. Not surprisingly, elucidating the intricate interplay between metal ions and protein structures has been the focus of extensive structural and mechanistic scrutiny over the last several decades. As a result of such top-down efforts, we have gained a reasonably detailed understanding of how metal ions shape protein structures and how protein structures in turn influence metal reactivity. It is fair to say that we now have some idea–and in some cases, a good idea–about how most known metalloproteins function and we possess enough insight to quickly assess the modus operandi of newly discovered ones. However, translating this knowledge into an ability to construct functional metalloproteins from scratch represents a challenge at a whole different level: it is one thing to know how an automobile works; it is another to build one. In our quest to build new metalloproteins, we have taken an original approach in which folded, monomeric proteins are used as ligands or synthons for building supramolecular complexes through metal-mediated self-assembly (MDPSA, Metal-Directed Protein Self-Assembly). The interfaces in the resulting protein superstructures are subsequently tailored with covalent, noncovalent, or additional metal-coordination interactions for stabilization and incorporation of new functionalities (MeTIR, Metal Templated Interface Redesign). In an earlier Account, we had described the proof-of-principle studies for MDPSA and MeTIR, using a four-helix bundle, heme protein cytochrome cb562 (cyt cb562), as a model building block. By the end of those studies, we were able to demonstrate that a tetrameric, Zn-directed cyt cb562 complex (Zn4:M14) could be stabilized through computationally prescribed noncovalent interactions inserted into the nascent protein–protein interfaces. In this Account, we first describe the rationale and motivation for our particular metalloprotein engineering strategy and a brief summary of our earlier work. We then describe the next steps in the “evolution” of bioinorganic complexity on the Zn4:M14 scaffold, namely, (a) the generation of a self-standing protein assembly that can stably and selectively bind metal ions, (b) the creation of reactive metal centers within the protein assembly, and (c) the coupling of metal coordination and reactivity to external stimuli through allosteric effects.


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Designer Zinc Finger Proteins: Tools for Creating Artificial DNA-Binding Functional Proteins

Review

Sugiura, Y.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2006, 10.1021/ar050158u


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Designing Enzyme-Like Catalysts: A Rhodium(II) Metallopeptide Case Study

Review

Ball, Z.T.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2013, 10.1021/ar300261h


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Directed Evolution of Artificial Metalloenzymes: A Universal Means to Tune the Selectivity of Transition Metal Catalysts?

Review

Reetz, M.T.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00582


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Directed Evolution of Artificial Metalloenzymes: A Universal Means to Tune the Selectivity of Transition Metal Catalysts?

Review

Reetz, M.T.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00582

Transition metal catalysts mediate a wide variety of chemo-, stereo-, and regioselective transformations, and therefore play a pivotal role in modern synthetic organic chemistry. Steric and electronic effects of ligands provide organic chemists with an exceedingly useful tool. More than four decades ago, chemists began to think about a different approach, namely, embedding achiral ligand/metal moieties covalently or noncovalently in protein hosts with formation of artificial metalloenzymes. While structurally fascinating, this approach led in each case only to a single (bio)catalyst, with its selectivity and activity being a matter of chance. In order to solve this fundamental problem, my group proposed in 2000−2002 the idea of directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes. In earlier studies, we had already demonstrated that directed evolution of enzymes constitutes a viable method for enhancing and inverting the stereoselectivity of enzymes as catalysts inorganic chemistry. We speculated that it should also be possible to manipulate selectivity and activity of artificial metalloenzymes, which would provide organic chemists with a tool for optimizing essentially any transition metal catalyzed reaction type. In order to put this vision into practice, we first turned to the Whitesides system for artificial metalloenzyme formation, comprising a biotinylated diphosphine/Rh moiety, which is anchored noncovalently to avidin or streptavidin. Following intensive optimization, proof of principle was finally demonstrated in 2006, which opened the door to a new research area. This personal Account critically assesses these early studies as well as subsequent efforts from my group focusing on different protein scaffolds, and includes briefly some of the most important current contributions of other groups. Two primary messages emerge: First, since organic chemists continue to be extremely good at designing and implementing man-made transition metal catalysts, often on a large scale, those scientists that are active in the equally intriguing field of directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes should be moderate when generalizing claims. All factors required for a truly viable catalytic system need to beconsidered, especially activity and ease of upscaling. Second, the most exciting and thus far very rare cases of directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes are those that focus on selective transformations that are not readily possible using state of the art transition metal catalysts.


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Expansion of Redox Chemistry in Designer Metalloenzymes

Review

Wang, J.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00627


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From Enzyme Maturation to Synthetic Chemistry: The Case of Hydrogenases

Review

Fontecave, M.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2015, 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00157


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LmrR: A Privileged Scaffold for Artificial Metalloenzymes

Review

Roelfes, G.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00004


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Metal-Assembled Modular Proteins: Toward Functional Protein Design

Review

Case, M.A.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2004, 10.1021/ar960245+


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Modular Homogeneous Chromophore-Catalyst Assemblies

Review

Mulfort, K.L.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2016, 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00539


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New Functionalization of Myoglobin by Chemical Modification of Heme-Propionates

Review

Acc. Chem. Res., 2002, 10.1021/ar000087t


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Noble-Metal Substitution in Hemoproteins: An Emerging Strategy for Abiological Catalysis

Review

Hartwig, J.F.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00586

Enzymes have evolved to catalyze a range of biochemical transformations with high efficiencies and unparalleled selectivities, including stereoselectivities, regioselectivities, chemoselectivities, and substrate selectivities, while typically operating under mild aqueous conditions. These properties have motivated extensive research to identify or create enzymes with reactivity that complements or even surpasses the reactivity of small-molecule catalysts for chemical reactions. One of the limitations preventing the wider use of enzymes in chemical synthesis, however, is the narrow range of bond constructions catalyzed by native enzymes. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to create artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) that combine the molecular recognition of nature with the reactivity discovered by chemists. This Account describes a new approach for generating ArMs by the formal replacement of the natural iron found in the porphyrin IX (PIX) of hemoproteins with noble metals. Analytical techniques coupled with studies of chemical reactivity have demonstrated that expression of apomyoglobins and apocytochrome P450s (for which “apo-” denotes the cofactor-free protein) followed by reconstitution with metal−PIX cofactors in vitro creates proteins with little perturbation of the native structure, suggesting that the cofactors likely reside within the native active site. By means of this metal substitution strategy, a large number of ArMs have been constructed that contain varying metalloporphyrins and mutations of the protein. The studies discussed in this Account encompass the use of ArMs containing noble metals to catalyze a range of abiological transformations with high chemoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity, and regioselectivity. These transformations include intramolecular and intermolecular insertion of carbenes into C−H, N−H, and S−H bonds, cyclopropanation of vinylarenes and of internal and nonconjugated alkenes, and intramolecular insertions of nitrenes into C−H bonds. The rates of intramolecular insertions into C−H bonds catalyzed by thermophilic P450 enzymes reconstituted with an Ir(Me)−PIX cofactor are now comparable to the rates of reactions catalyzed by native enzymes and, to date, 1000 times greater than those of any previously reported ArM. This reactivity also encompasses the selective intermolecular insertion of the carbene from ethyl diazoacetate into C−H bonds over dimerization of the carbene to form alkenes, a class of carbene insertion or selectivity not reported to occur with small-molecule catalysts. These combined results highlight the potential of well-designed ArMs to catalyze abiological transformations that have been challenging to achieve with any type of catalyst. The metal substitution strategy described herein should complement the reactivity of native enzymes and expand the scope of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.


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Noble−Metal Substitution in Hemoproteins: An Emerging Strategy for Abiological Catalysis

Review

Hartwig, J.F.

Acc. Chem. Res., 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00586


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A Highly Active Biohybrid Catalyst for Olefin Metathesis in Water: Impact of a Hydrophobic Cavity in a β-Barrel Protein

Okuda, J.

ACS Catal., 2015, 10.1021/acscatal.5b01792

A series of Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis containing a maleimide moiety in the backbone of the NHC ligand was covalently incorporated in the cavity of the β-barrel protein nitrobindin. By using two protein mutants with different cavity sizes and choosing the suitable spacer length, an artificial metalloenzyme for olefin metathesis reactions in water in the absence of any organic cosolvents was obtained. High efficiencies reaching TON > 9000 in the ROMP of a water-soluble 7-oxanorbornene derivative and TON > 100 in ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of 4,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,6-heptadiene in water under relatively mild conditions (pH 6, T = 25–40 °C) were observed.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 9900
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ROMP (cis/trans: 48/52)

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 100
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: RCM

Artificial Metalloenzyme Design with Unnatural Amino Acids and Non-Native Cofactors

Review

Wang, J.

ACS Catal., 2018, 10.1021/acscatal.7b03754


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Artificial Metalloenzymes and Metallopeptide Catalysts for Organic Synthesis

Review

Lewis, J.C.

ACS Catal., 2013, 10.1021/cs400806a


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A Whole Cell E. coli Display Platform for Artificial Metalloenzymes: Poly(phenylacetylene) Production with a Rhodium–Nitrobindin Metalloprotein

Schwaneberg, U.

ACS Catal., 2018, 10.1021/acscatal.7b04369


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp
Host protein: Nitrobindin variant NB4
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 3046
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Calculated in vivo TON assuming 12800 metalloenzymes per E. coli cell

Chimeric Streptavidins as Host Proteins for Artificial Metalloenzymes

Ward, T.R.; Woolfson, D.N.

ACS Catal., 2018, 10.1021/acscatal.7b03773


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Diamine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 970
ee: 13
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Diamine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 158
ee: 82
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 105
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: RCM, biotinylated Hoveyda-Grubbs second generation catalyst

Metal: ---
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Anion-π catalysis
Max TON: 6
ee: 41
PDB: ---
Notes: No metal

Computational Insights on an Artificial Imine Reductase Based on the Biotin-Streptavidin Technology

Maréchal, J.-D.

ACS Catal., 2014, 10.1021/cs400921n


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Diamine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: 96
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: Prediction of the enantioselectivity by computational methods.

Development of De Novo Copper Nitrite Reductases: Where we are and where we need to go

Review

Pecoraro, V.L.

ACS Catal., 2018, 10.1021/acscatal.8b02153


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Direct Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide by an Artificial Reductase Obtained by Substituting Rhodium for Zinc in the Carbonic Anhydrase Catalytic Center. A Mechanistic Study

Marino, T.

ACS Catal., 2015, 10.1021/acscatal.5b00185


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Computational study of the reaction mechanism of the formation of HCOOH from CO2