15 publications

15 publications

Catalytic Cyclopropanation by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Iron Porphycene: Acceleration of Catalysis due to Rapid Formation of the Carbene Species

Hasegawa, J.-Y.; Lehnert, N.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 17265-17268, 10.1021/jacs.7b10154

Myoglobin reconstituted with iron porphycene catalyzes the cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate. Compared to native myoglobin, the reconstituted protein significantly accelerates the catalytic reaction and the kcat/Km value is 26-fold enhanced. Mechanistic studies indicate that the reaction of the reconstituted protein with ethyl diazoacetate is 615-fold faster than that of native myoglobin. The metallocarbene species reacts with styrene with the apparent second-order kinetic constant of 28 mM–1 s–1 at 25 °C. Complementary theoretical studies support efficient carbene formation by the reconstituted protein that results from the strong ligand field of the porphycene and fewer intersystem crossing steps relative to the native protein. From these findings, the substitution of the cofactor with an appropriate metal complex serves as an effective way to generate a new biocatalyst.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate: kcat/KM = 1.3 mM-1 * s-1, trans/cis = 99:1

Coordinated Design of Cofactor and Active Site Structures in Development of New Protein Catalysts

Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 6556-6562, 10.1021/ja045995q

New methods for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes are important for the construction of novel biocatalysts and biomaterials. Recently, we reported new methodology for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes by reconstituting apo-myoglobin with metal complexes (Ohashi, M. et al., Angew Chem., Int. Ed.2003, 42, 1005−1008). However, it has been difficult to improve their reactivity, since their crystal structures were not available. In this article, we report the crystal structures of MIII(Schiff base)·apo-A71GMbs (M = Cr and Mn). The structures suggest that the position of the metal complex in apo-Mb is regulated by (i) noncovalent interaction between the ligand and surrounding peptides and (ii) the ligation of the metal ion to proximal histidine (His93). In addition, it is proposed that specific interactions of Ile107 with 3- and 3‘-substituent groups on the salen ligand control the location of the Schiff base ligand in the active site. On the basis of these results, we have successfully controlled the enantioselectivity in the sulfoxidation of thioanisole by changing the size of substituents at the 3 and 3‘ positions. This is the first example of an enantioselective enzymatic reaction regulated by the design of metal complex in the protein active site.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1V9Q
Notes: ---

Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1J3F
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Crystal Structure and Peroxidase Activity of Myoglobin Reconstituted with Iron Porphycene

Hayashi, T

Inorg. Chem. 2006, 45, 10530-10536, 10.1021/ic061130x

The incorporation of an artificially created metal complex into an apomyoglobin is one of the attractive methods in a series of hemoprotein modifications. Single crystals of sperm whale myoglobin reconstituted with 13,16-dicarboxyethyl-2,7-diethyl-3,6,12,17-tetramethylporphycenatoiron(III) were obtained in the imidazole buffer, and the 3D structure with a 2.25-Å resolution indicates that the iron porphycene, a structural isomer of hemin, is located in the normal position of the heme pocket. Furthermore, it was found that the reconstituted myoglobin catalyzed the H2O2-dependent oxidations of substrates such as guaiacol, thioanisole, and styrene. At pH 7.0 and 20 °C, the initial rate of the guaiacol oxidation is 11-fold faster than that observed for the native myoglobin. Moreover, the stopped-flow analysis of the reaction of the reconstituted protein with H2O2 suggested the formation of two reaction intermediates, compounds II- and III-like species, in the absence of a substrate. It is a rare example that compound III is formed via compound II in myoglobin chemistry. The enhancement of the peroxidase activity and the formation of the stable compound III in myoglobin with iron porphycene mainly arise from the strong coordination of the Fe−His93 bond.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1MBI
Notes: ---

C(sp3)–H Bond Hydroxylation Catalyzed by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Manganese Porphycene

Hayashi, T

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 17282-17285, 10.1021/ja409404k

Myoglobin reconstituted with manganese porphycene was prepared in an effort to generate a new biocatalyst and was characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of the reconstituted protein reveals that the artificial cofactor is located in the intrinsic heme-binding site with weak ligation by His93. Interestingly, the reconstituted protein catalyzes the H2O2-dependent hydroxylation of ethylbenzene to yield 1-phenylethanol as a single product with a turnover number of 13 at 25 °C and pH 8.5. Native myoglobin and other modified myoglobins do not catalyze C–H hydroxylation of alkanes. Isotope effect experiments yield KIE values of 2.4 and 6.1 for ethylbenzene and toluene, respectively. Kinetic data, log kobs versus BDE(C(sp3)–H) for ethylbenzene, toluene, and cyclohexane, indicate a linear relationship with a negative slope. These findings clearly indicate that the reaction occurs via a rate-determining step that involves hydrogen-atom abstraction by a Mn(O) species and a subsequent rebound hydroxylation process which is similar to the reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroxylation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2WI8
Notes: ---

Design of Metal Cofactors Activated by a Protein–Protein Electron Transfer System

Watanabe, Y.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2006, 103, 9416-9421, 10.1073/pnas.0510968103

Protein-to-protein electron transfer (ET) is a critical process in biological chemistry for which fundamental understanding is expected to provide a wealth of applications in biotechnology. Investigations of protein–protein ET systems in reductive activation of artificial cofactors introduced into proteins remains particularly challenging because of the complexity of interactions between the cofactor and the system contributing to ET. In this work, we construct an artificial protein–protein ET system, using heme oxygenase (HO), which is known to catalyze the conversion of heme to biliverdin. HO uses electrons provided from NADPH/cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) through protein–protein complex formation during the enzymatic reaction. We report that a FeIII(Schiff-base), in the place of the active-site heme prosthetic group of HO, can be reduced by NADPH/CPR. The crystal structure of the Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO composite indicates the presence of a hydrogen bond between the propionic acid carboxyl group and Arg-177 of HO. Furthermore, the ET rate from NADPH/CPR to the composite is 3.5-fold faster than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO, although the redox potential of Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO (−79 mV vs. NHE) is lower than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO (+15 mV vs. NHE), where NHE is normal hydrogen electrode. This work describes a synthetic metal complex activated by means of a protein–protein ET system, which has not previously been reported. Moreover, the result suggests the importance of the hydrogen bond for the ET reaction of HO. Our Fe(Schiff-base)·HO composite model system may provide insights with regard to design of ET biosystems for sensors, catalysts, and electronics devices.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Heme oxygenase (HO)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1WZD
Notes: ---

Generation of a Functional, Semisynthetic [FeFe]-Hydrogenase in a Photosynthetic Microorganism

Berggren, G.; Lindblad, P.

Energy Environ. Sci. 2018, 11, 3163-3167, 10.1039/C8EE01975D

[FeFe]-Hydrogenases are hydrogen producing metalloenzymes with excellent catalytic capacities, highly relevant in the context of a future hydrogen economy. Here we demonstrate the synthetic activation of a heterologously expressed [FeFe]-hydrogenase in living cells of Synechocystis PCC 6803, a photoautotrophic microbial chassis with high potential for biotechnological energy applications. H2-Evolution assays clearly show that the non-native, semi-synthetic enzyme links to the native metabolism in living cells.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: CN; CO
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Hybridization of Modified-Heme Reconstitution and Distal Histidine Mutation to Functionalize Sperm Whale Myoglobin

Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 436-437, 10.1021/ja038798k

To modulate the physiological function of a hemoprotein, most approaches have been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of the native heme with an artificial prosthetic group is another way to modify a hemoprotein. However, an alternate method, mutation or heme reconstitution, does not always demonstrate sufficient improvement compared with the native heme enzyme. In the present study, to convert a simple oxygen storage hemoprotein, myoglobin, into an active peroxidase, we applied both methods at the same time. The native heme of myoglobin was replaced with a chemically modified heme 2 having two aromatic rings at the heme-propionate termini. The constructed myoglobins were examined for 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol) oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Compared with native myoglobin, rMb(H64D·2) showed a 430-fold higher kcat/Km value, which is significantly higher than that of cytochrome c peroxidase and only 3-fold less than that of horseradish peroxidase. In addition, myoglobin-catalyzed degradation of bisphenol A was examined by HPLC analysis. The rMb(H64D·2) showed drastic acceleration (>35-fold) of bisphenol A degradation compared with the native myoglobin. In this system, a highly oxidized heme reactive species is smoothly generated and a substrate is effectively bound in the heme pocket, while native myoglobin only reversibly binds dioxygen. The present results indicate that the combination of a modified-heme reconstitution and an amino acid mutation should offer interesting perspectives toward developing a useful biomolecule catalyst from a hemoprotein.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Manganese(V) Porphycene Complex Responsible for Inert C–H Bond Hydroxylation in a Myoglobin Matrix

Oohora, K.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 18460-18463, 10.1021/jacs.7b11288

A mechanistic study of H2O2-dependent C–H bond hydroxylation by myoglobin reconstituted with a manganese porphycene was carried out. The X-ray crystal structure of the reconstituted protein obtained at 1.5 Å resolution reveals tight incorporation of the complex into the myoglobin matrix at pH 8.5, the optimized pH value for the highest turnover number of hydroxylation of ethylbenzene. The protein generates a spectroscopically detectable two-electron oxidative intermediate in a reaction with peracid, which has a half-life up to 38 s at 10 °C. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the intermediate with perpendicular and parallel modes are silent, indicating formation of a low-spin MnV-oxo species. In addition, the MnV-oxo species is capable of promoting the hydroxylation of sodium 4-ethylbenzenesulfonate under single turnover conditions with an apparent second-order rate constant of 2.0 M–1 s–1 at 25 °C. Furthermore, the higher bond dissociation enthalpy of the substrate decreases the rate constant, in support of the proposal that the H-abstraction is one of the rate-limiting steps. The present engineered myoglobin serves as an artificial metalloenzyme for inert C–H bond activation via a high-valent metal species similar to the species employed by native monooxygenases such as cytochrome P450.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroxylation
Max TON: 13
ee: ---
PDB: 5YL3
Notes: ---

Meso-Unsubstituted Iron Corrole in Hemoproteins: Remarkable Differences in Effects on Peroxidase Activities between Myoglobin and Horseradish Peroxidase

Hayashi, T

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 15124-15125, 10.1021/ja907428e

Myoglobin (Mb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were both reconstituted with a meso-unsubstituted iron corrole and their electronic configurations and peroxidase activities were investigated. The appearance of the 540 nm band upon incorporation of the iron corrole into apoMb indicates axial coordination by the proximal histidine imidazole in the Mb heme pocket. Based on 1H NMR measurements using the Evans method, the total magnetic susceptibility of the iron corrole reconstituted Mb was evaluated to be S = 3/2. In contrast, although a band does not appear in the vicinity of 540 nm during reconstitution of the iron corrole into the matrix of HRP, a spectrum similar to that of the iron corrole reconstituted Mb is observed upon the addition of dithionite. This observation suggests that the oxidation state of the corrole iron in the reconstituted HRP can be assigned as +4. The catalytic activities of both proteins toward guaiacol oxidation are quite different; the iron corrole reconstituted HRP decelerates H2O2-dependent oxidation of guaiacol, while the same reaction catalyzed by iron corrole reconstituted Mb has the opposite effect and accelerates the reaction. This finding can be attributed to the difference in the oxidation states of the corrole iron when these proteins are in the resting state.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Corrole
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Corrole
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Orthogonal Expression of an Artificial Metalloenzyme for Abiotic Catalysis

Brustad, E.M.

ChemBioChem 2017, 18, 2380-2384, 10.1002/cbic.201700397

Engineering an (Ir)regular cytochrome P450: Mutations within the heme‐binding pocket of a cytochrome P450 enabled the selective incorporation of an artificial Ir‐porphyrin cofactor into the protein, in cells. This orthogonal metalloprotein showed enhanced behavior in unnatural carbene‐mediated cyclopropanation of aliphatic and electron‐deficient olefins.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome BM3h
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 339
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate, cis:trans = 29:71

Peroxidase Activity of Myoglobin is Enhanced by Chemical Mutation of Heme-Propionates

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7747-7750, 10.1021/ja9841005

Peroxidase activity of a myoglobin reconstituted with a chemically modified heme 1 is reported. The heme 1 bearing a total of eight carboxylates bound to the terminal of propionate side chains is incorporated into apomyoglobin from horse heart to obtain a new reconstituted myoglobin, rMb(1), with a unique binding domain structure. The UV−vis, CD, and NMR spectra of rMb(1) are comparable with those of native myoglobin, nMb. The mixing of rMb(1) with hydrogen peroxide yields a peroxidase compound II-like species, rMb(1)-II, since the spectrum of rMb(1)-II is identical with that observed for nMb. Stoichiometric oxidation of several small molecules by rMb(1)-II, demonstrates the significant reactivity. (i) The oxidation of cationic substrate such as [Ru(NH3)6]2+ by rMb(1)-II is faster than that observed for oxoferryl species of nMb, nMb-II. (ii) Anionic substrates such as ferrocyanide are unsuitable for the oxidation by rMb(1)-II. (iii) Oxidations of catechol, hydroquinone, and guaiacol are dramatically enhanced by rMb(1)-II (14−32-fold) compared to those observed for nMb-II. Thus, the chemical modification of heme-propionates can alter substrate specificity. Steady-state kinetic measurements indicate that both the reactivity and substrate affinity toward guaiacol oxidation by rMb(1) are improved, so that the specificity, kcat/Km, is 13-fold higher than that in nMb. This result strongly suggests that the artificially modified heme-propionates may increase the accessibility of neutral aromatic substrates to the heme active site. The present work demonstrates that the chemical mutation of prosthetic group is a new strategy to create proteins with engineered function.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Porphyrinoid Chemistry in Hemoprotein Matrix:  Detection and Reactivities of Iron(IV)-Oxo Species of Porphycene Incorporated into Horseradish Peroxidase

Hayashi, T

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 12906-12907, 10.1021/ja074685f

The iron porphycene with two propionates at the peripheral positions of the framework was incorporated into the heme pocket of horseradish peroxidase. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the ferric iron porphycene was smoothly converted into the iron(IV)-oxo porphycene π-cation radical species, which was confirmed by the appearance of a band around 800 nm in the UV−vis spectrum. The protein with the iron porphycene showed a 10-fold higher reactivity for the thioanisole oxidation when compared to the native protein. In contrast, the guaiacol oxidation proceeded with similar reaction rates in both proteins. The kinetic analyses indicated that the ferric porphycene in the protein more slowly reacts with hydrogen peroxide than the native heme, whereas the high oxidation states show higher reactivities during oxidations of an organic substrate. The formation of the iron(IV)-oxo species of porphycene and its reactivities in the hemoprotein matrix are demonstrated.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphycene
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Precise Design of Artificial Cofactors for Enhancing Peroxidase Activity of Myoglobin: Myoglobin Mutant H64D Reconstituted with a “Single-Winged Cofactor” is Equivalent to Native Horseradish Peroxidase in Oxidation Activity

Matsuo, T.

Chem. - Asian J. 2011, 6, 2491-2499, 10.1002/asia.201100107

H64D myoglobin mutant was reconstituted with two different types of synthetic hemes that have aromatic rings and a carboxylate‐based cluster attached to the terminus of one or both of the heme‐propionate moieties, thereby forming a “single‐winged cofactor” and “double‐winged cofactor,” respectively. The reconstituted mutant myoglobins have smaller Km values with respect to 2‐methoxyphenol oxidation activity relative to the parent mutant with native heme. This suggests that the attached moiety functions as a substrate‐binding domain. However, the kcat value of the mutant myoglobin with the double‐winged cofactor is much lower than that of the mutant with the native heme. In contrast, the mutant reconstituted with the single‐winged cofactor has a larger kcat value, thereby resulting in overall catalytic activity that is essentially equivalent to that of the native horseradish peroxidase. Enhanced peroxygenase activity was also observed for the mutant myoglobin with the single‐winged cofactor, thus indicating that introduction of an artificial substrate‐binding domain at only one of the heme propionates in the H64D mutant is the optimal engineering strategy for improving the peroxidase activity of myoglobin.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Preparation of Artificial Metalloenzymes by Insertion of Chromium(III) Schiff Base Complexes into apo-Myoglobin Mutants

Watanabe, Y.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 1005-1008, 10.1002/anie.200390256

Insertion of a symmetric metal complex, [CrIII(5,5′‐tBu‐salophen)]+ (H2salophen=N,N′‐bis(salicylidene)‐1,2‐phenylenediamine), into the active site of apomyoglobin is demonstrated (see picture). The metal ion and the ligand structure are very important factors that influence the binding affinity of the metal complex with the myoglobin (Mb) cavity. Semisynthetic metalloenzymes can catalyze enantioselective sulfoxidation by using the chiral protein cavity.


Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Site‐Selective Functionalization of (sp3)C-H Bonds Catalyzed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Containing an Iridium‐Porphyrin Cofactor

Hartwig, J.F.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, 58, 13954-13960, 10.1002/anie.201907460

The selective functionalization of one C-H bond over others in nearly identical steric and electronic environments can facilitate the construction of complex molecules. We report site-selective functionalizations of C-H bonds, differentiated solely by remote substituents, catalyzed by artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) that are generated from the combination of an evolvable P450 scaffold and an iridium-porphyrin cofactor. The generated systems catalyze the insertion of carbenes into the C-H bonds of arange of phthalan derivatives containing substituents that render the two methylene positions in each phthalan inequivalent. These reactions occur with site-selectivity ratios of up to 17.8:1 and, in most cases, with pairs of enzyme mutants that preferentially form each of the two constitutional isomers. This study demonstrates the potential of abiotic reactions catalyzed by metalloenzymes to functionalize C-H bonds with site selectivity that is difficult to achieve with small-molecule catalysts.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 2286
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---