49 publications

49 publications

A Dual Anchoring Strategy for the Localization and Activation of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5384-5388, 10.1021/ja309974s

Artificial metalloenzymes result from anchoring an active catalyst within a protein environment. Toward this goal, various localization strategies have been pursued: covalent, supramolecular, or dative anchoring. Herein we show that introduction of a suitably positioned histidine residue contributes to firmly anchor, via a dative bond, a biotinylated rhodium piano stool complex within streptavidin. The in silico design of the artificial metalloenzyme was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme displays significantly improved catalytic performance, both in terms of activity and selectivity in the transfer hydrogenation of imines. Depending on the position of the histidine residue, both enantiomers of the salsolidine product can be obtained.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 14
ee: 11
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: 79
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A General Method for Artificial Metalloenzyme Formationthrough Strain-Promoted Azide–Alkyne Cycloaddition

Lewis, J.C.

ChemBioChem 2014, 15, 223-227, 10.1002/cbic.201300661

Strain‐promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) can be used to generate artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) from scaffold proteins containing a p‐azido‐L‐phenylalanine (Az) residue and catalytically active bicyclononyne‐substituted metal complexes. The high efficiency of this reaction allows rapid ArM formation when using Az residues within the scaffold protein in the presence of cysteine residues or various reactive components of cellular lysate. In general, cofactor‐based ArM formation allows the use of any desired metal complex to build unique inorganic protein materials. SPAAC covalent linkage further decouples the native function of the scaffold from the installation process because it is not affected by native amino acid residues; as long as an Az residue can be incorporated, an ArM can be generated. We have demonstrated the scope of this method with respect to both the scaffold and cofactor components and established that the dirhodium ArMs generated can catalyze the decomposition of diazo compounds and both SiH and olefin insertion reactions involving these carbene precursors.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Poly-carboxylic acid
Host protein: tHisF
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 81
ee: ---
PDB: 1THF
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Poly-carboxylic acid
Host protein: tHisF
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Si-H insertion
Max TON: 7
ee: ---
PDB: 1THF
Notes: ---

An Artificial Metalloenzyme for Carbene Transfer Based on a Biotinylated Dirhodium Anchored Within Streptavidin

Ward, T.R.

Cat. Sci. Technol. 2018, 8, 2294-2298, 10.1039/C8CY00646F

We report an artificial carbenoid transferase which combines a biotinylated dirhodium moiety within streptavidin scaffold.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Carboxylate
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: ~60
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cyclopropanation reaction was also performed in the E. coli periplasm.

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Carboxylate
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H insertion
Max TON: ~60
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Protein-Rhodium Complex as an Efficient Catalyst for Two-Phase Olefin Hydroformylation

Marchetti, M.

Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 41, 3717-3720, 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)00473-1

A highly efficient and chemoselective biphasic hydroformylation of olefins was accomplished using water soluble complexes formed by the interaction between Rh(CO)2(acac) and human serum albumin (HSA), a readily available water soluble protein. A new type of shape-selectivity was observed in the hydroformylation of sterically hindered olefins.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Acac; CO2
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroformylation
Max TON: ~600
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Aqueous Biphasic Hydroformylation Catalysed by Protein-Rhodium Complexes

Marchetti, M.

Adv. Synth. Catal. 2002, 344, 556, 10.1002/1615-4169(200207)344:5<556::AID-ADSC556>3.0.CO;2-E

The water‐soluble complex derived from Rh(CO)2(acac) and human serum albumin (HSA) proved to be efficient in the hydroformylation of several olefin substrates. The chemoselectivity and regioselectivity were generally higher than those obtained by using the classic catalytic systems like TPPTS‐Rh(I) (TPPTS=triphenylphosphine‐3,3′,3″‐trisulfonic acid trisodium salt). Styrene and 1‐octene, for instance, were converted in almost quantitative yields into the corresponding oxo‐aldehydes at 60 °C and 70 atm (CO/H2=1) even at very low Rh(CO)2(acac)/HSA catalyst concentrations. The possibility of easily recovering the Rh(I) compound makes the system environmentally friendly. The circular dichroism technique was useful for demonstrating the Rh(I) binding to the protein and to give information on the stability in solution of the catalytic system. Some other proteins have been used to replace HSA as complexing agent for Rh(I). The results were less impressive than those obtained using HSA and their complexes with Rh(I) were much less stable.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroformylation
Max TON: 741000
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Aqueous Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin–Avidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

J. Organomet. Chem. 2005, 690, 4488-4491, 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2005.02.001

Based on the incorporation of biotinylated organometallic catalyst precursors within (strept)avidin, we have developed artificial metalloenzymes for the oxidation of secondary alcohols using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidizing agent. In the presence of avidin as host protein, the biotinylated aminosulfonamide ruthenium piano stool complex 1 (0.4 mol%) catalyzes the oxidation of sec-phenethyl alcohol at room temperature within 90 h in over 90% yield. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the reaction mixture suggests that the host protein is not oxidatively degraded during catalysis.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 200
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 230
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Bipyridine; C6Me6
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 173
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 7.5
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 30
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Aqueous Phase Transfer Hydrogenation of Aryl Ketones Catalysed by Achiral Ruthenium(II) and Rhodium(III) Complexes and their Papain Conjugates

Salmain, M.

Appl. Organomet. Chem. 2013, 27, 6-12, 10.1002/aoc.2929

Several ruthenium and rhodium complexes including 2,2′‐dipyridylamine ligands substituted at the central N atom by an alkyl chain terminated by a maleimide functional group were tested along with a newly synthesized Rh(III) complex of unsubstituted 2,2′‐dipyridylamine as catalysts in the transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones in neat water with formate as hydrogen donor. All of them except one led to the secondary alcohol products with conversion rates depending on the metal complex. Site‐specific anchoring of the N‐maleimide complexes to the single free cysteine residue of the cysteine endoproteinase papain endowed this protein with transfer hydrogenase properties towards 2,2,2‐trifluoroacetophenone. Quantitative conversions were reached with the Rh‐based biocatalysts, while modest enantioselectivities were obtained in certain reactional conditions.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Poly-pyridine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 96
ee: 15
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Rhodium Complex-Linked β-Barrel Protein as a Hybrid Biocatalyst for Phenylacetylene Polymerization

Hayashi, T

Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 9756, 10.1039/C2CC35165J

Our group recently prepared a hybrid catalyst containing a rhodium complex, Rh(Cp)(cod), with a maleimide moiety at the peripheral position of the Cp ligand. This compound was then inserted into a β-barrel protein scaffold of a mutant of aponitrobindin (Q96C) via a covalent linkage. The hybrid protein is found to act as a polymerization catalyst and preferentially yields trans-poly(phenylacetylene) (PPA), although the rhodium complex without the protein scaffold normally produces cis PPA.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp*
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes Derived from Bovine β-Lactoglobulin for the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of an Aryl Ketone – Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity

Salmain, M.

Dalton Trans. 2014, 43, 5482-5489, 10.1039/c3dt53253d

Protein hybrids resulting from the supramolecular anchoring to bovine β-lactoglobulin of fatty acid-derived Rh(iii) diimine complexes catalysed the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of trifluoroacetophenone with up to 32% ee.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Poly-pyridine
Host protein: ß-lactoglobulin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 14
ee: 32
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Catalysis Based on Biotin-Avidin

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9030-9031, 10.1021/ja035545i

Homogeneous and enzymatic catalysis offer complementary means to generate enantiomerically pure compounds. Incorporation of achiral biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes into (strept)avidin yields artificial metalloenzymes for the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to produce (R)-acetamidoalanine with 96% enantioselectivity. These hybrid catalysts display features reminiscent both of enzymatic and of homogeneous systems.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 96
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Catalysis: The Phenomenon of Protein Accelerated Catalysis

Ward, T.R.

J. Organomet. Chem. 2004, 689, 4868-4871, 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.09.032

We report on the phenomenon of protein-accelerated catalysis in the field of artificial metalloenzymes based on the non-covalent incorporation of biotinylated rhodium–diphosphine complexes in (strept)avidin as host proteins. By incrementally varying the [Rh(COD)(Biot-1)]+ vs. (strept)avidin ratio, we show that the enantiomeric excess of the produced acetamidoalanine decreases slowly. This suggests that the catalyst inside (strept)avidin is more active than the catalyst outside the host protein. Both avidin and streptavidin display protein-accelerated catalysis as the protein embedded catalyst display 12.0- and 3.0-fold acceleration over the background reaction with a catalyst devoid of protein. Thus, these artificial metalloenzymes display an increase both in activity and in selectivity for the reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid.


Metal: Rh
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: Reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid. 3.0-fold protein acceleration.

Metal: Rh
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 39
PDB: ---
Notes: Reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid. 12.0-fold protein acceleration.

Artificial Metalloenzymes: (Strept)avidin as Host for Enantioselective Hydrogenation by Achiral Biotinylated Rhodium-Diphosphine Complexes

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 14411-14418, 10.1021/ja0476718

We report on the generation of artificial metalloenzymes based on the noncovalent incorporation of biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes in (strept)avidin as host proteins. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to optimize the enantioselectivity for the reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid (up to 96% ee (R) in streptavidin S112G and up to 80% ee (S) in WT avidin). The association constant between a prototypical cationic biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine catalyst precursor and the host proteins was determined at neutral pH:  log Ka = 7.7 for avidin (pI = 10.4) and log Ka = 7.1 for streptavidin (pI = 6.4). It is shown that the optimal operating conditions for the enantioselective reduction are 5 bar at 30 °C with a 1% catalyst loading.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin-(Strept)avidin Technology: Fine Tuning the Selectivity by Saturation Mutagenesis of the Host Protein

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 8320-8328, 10.1021/ja061580o

Incorporation of biotinylated racemic three-legged d6-piano stool complexes in streptavidin yields enantioselective transfer hydrogenation artificial metalloenzymes for the reduction of ketones. Having identified the most promising organometallic catalyst precursors in the presence of wild-type streptavidin, fine-tuning of the selectivity is achieved by saturation mutagenesis at position S112. This choice for the genetic optimization site is suggested by docking studies which reveal that this position lies closest to the biotinylated metal upon incorporation into streptavidin. For aromatic ketones, the reaction proceeds smoothly to afford the corresponding enantioenriched alcohols in up to 97% ee (R) or 70% (S). On the basis of these results, we suggest that the enantioselection is mostly dictated by CH/π interactions between the substrate and the η6-bound arene. However, these enantiodiscriminating interactions can be outweighed in the presence of cationic residues at position S112 to afford the opposite enantiomers of the product.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 96
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 73
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 95
ee: 70
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 79
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases for the Enantioselective Reduction of Cyclic Imines

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 3026-3029, 10.1002/anie.201007820

Man‐made activity: Introduction of a biotinylated iridium piano stool complex within streptavidin affords an artificial imine reductase (see scheme). Saturation mutagenesis allowed optimization of the activity and the enantioselectivity of this metalloenzyme, and its X‐ray structure suggests that a nearby lysine residue acts as a proton source during the transfer hydrogenation.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 4000
ee: 96
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 94
ee: 52
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 97
ee: 22
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 76
ee: 12
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Asymmetric Hydrogenation with Antibody-Achiral Rhodium Complex

Harada, A.

Org. Biomol. Chem. 2006, 4, 3571, 10.1039/B609242J

Monoclonal antibodies have been elicited against an achiral rhodium complex and this complex was used in the presence of a resultant antibody, 1G8, for the catalytic hydrogenation of 2-acetamidoacrylic acid to produce N-acetyl-L-alanine in high (>98%) enantiomeric excess.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Phosphine
Host protein: Antibody 1G8
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Asymmetric δ-Lactam Synthesis with a Monomeric Streptavidin Artificial Metalloenzyme

McNaughton, B.R.; Rovis, T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 4815-4819, 10.1021/jacs.9b01596

Reliable design of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) to access transformations not observed in nature remains a long-standing and important challenge. We report that a monomeric streptavidin (mSav) Rh(III) ArM permits asymmetric synthesis of α,β-unsaturated-δ-lactams via a tandem C–H activation and [4+2] annulation reaction. These products are readily derivatized to enantioenriched piperidines, the most common N-heterocycle found in FDA approved pharmaceuticals. Desired δ-lactams are achieved in yields as high as 99% and enantiomeric excess of 97% under aqueous conditions at room temperature. Embedding a Rh cyclopentadienyl (Cp*) catalyst in the active site of mSav results in improved stereocontrol and a 7-fold enhancement in reactivity relative to the isolated biotinylated Rh(III) cofactor. In addition, mSav-Rh outperforms its well-established tetrameric forms, displaying 11–33 times more reactivity.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; OAc
Host protein: Streptavidin (monmeric)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Lactam synthesis
Max TON: 33
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Whole Cell E. coli Display Platform for Artificial Metalloenzymes: Poly(phenylacetylene) Production with a Rhodium–Nitrobindin Metalloprotein

Schwaneberg, U.

ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 2611-2614, 10.1021/acscatal.7b04369

Whole cell catalysis is, in many cases, a prerequisite for the cost-effective production of chemicals by biotechnological means. Synthetic metal catalysts for bioorthogonal reactions can be inactivated within cells due to abundant thiol derivatives. Here, a cell surface display-based whole cell biohybrid catalyst system (termed ArMt bugs) is reported as a generally applicable platform to unify cost-effective whole cell catalysis with biohybrid catalysis. An inactivated esterase autotransporter is employed to display the nitrobindin protein scaffold with a Rh catalyst on the E. coli surface. Stereoselective polymerization of phenylacetylene yielded a high turnover number (TON) (39 × 106 cell–1) for the ArMt bugs conversion platform.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp
Host protein: Nitrobindin variant NB4
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 3046
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Calculated in vivo TON assuming 12800 metalloenzymes per E. coli cell

Binding Mechanisms of Half-Sandwich Rh(III) and Ru(II) Arene Complexes on Human Serum Albumin: a Comparative Study

Dömötör, O.; Enyedy, É.A.

J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2019, 24, 703-719, 10.1007/s00775-019-01683-0

Various half-sandwich ruthenium(II) arene complexes and rhodium(III) arene complexes have been intensively investigated due to their prominent anticancer activity. The interaction of the organometallic complexes of Ru(η6-p-cymene) and Rh(η5-C5Me5) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in detail by a combination of various methods such as ultrafiltration, capillary electrophoresis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, fluorometry and UV–visible spectrophotometry in the presence of 100 mM chloride ions. Binding characteristics of the organometallic ions and their complexes with deferiprone, 2-picolinic acid, maltol, 6-methyl-2-picolinic acid and 2-quinaldic acid were evaluated. Kinetic aspects and reversibility of the albumin binding are also discussed. The effect of low-molecular-mass blood components on the protein binding was studied in addition to the interaction of organorhodium complexes with cell culture medium components. The organometallic ions were found to bind to HSA to a high extent via a coordination bond. Release of the bound metal ions was kinetically hindered and could not be induced by the denaturation of the protein. Binding of the Ru(η6-p-cymene) triaqua cation was much slower (ca. 24 h) compared to the rhodium congener (few min), while their complexes interacted with the protein relatively fast (1–2 h). The studied complexes were bound to HSA coordinatively. The highly stable and kinetically inert 2-picolinate Ru(η6-p-cymene) complex bound in an associative manner preserving its original entity, while lower stability complexes decomposed partly or completely upon binding to HSA. Fast, non-specific and high-affinity binding of the complexes on HSA highlights their coordinative interaction with various types of proteins possibly decreasing effective drug concentration.


Metal: Rh; Ru
Ligand type: Bidentate ligands
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Reaction: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Biotinylated Rh(III) Complexes in Engineered Streptavidin for Accelerated Asymmetric C–H Activation

Rovis, T.; Ward, T.R.

Science 2012, 338, 500-503, 10.1126/science.1226132

Enzymes provide an exquisitely tailored chiral environment to foster high catalytic activities and selectivities, but their native structures are optimized for very specific biochemical transformations. Designing a protein to accommodate a non-native transition metal complex can broaden the scope of enzymatic transformations while raising the activity and selectivity of small-molecule catalysis. Here, we report the creation of a bifunctional artificial metalloenzyme in which a glutamic acid or aspartic acid residue engineered into streptavidin acts in concert with a docked biotinylated rhodium(III) complex to enable catalytic asymmetric carbon-hydrogen (C–H) activation. The coupling of benzamides and alkenes to access dihydroisoquinolones proceeds with up to nearly a 100-fold rate acceleration compared with the activity of the isolated rhodium complex and enantiomeric ratios as high as 93:7.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 95
ee: 82
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Burkavidin: A Novel Secreted Biotin-Binding Protein from the Human Pathogen Burkholderia Pseudomallei

Creus, M.

Protein Expression Purif. 2011, 77, 131-139, 10.1016/j.pep.2011.01.003

The avidin–biotin technology has many applications, including molecular detection; immobilization; protein purification; construction of supramolecular assemblies and artificial metalloenzymes. Here we present the recombinant expression of novel biotin-binding proteins from bacteria and the purification and characterization of a secreted burkavidin from the human pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Expression of the native burkavidin in Escherichia coli led to periplasmic secretion and formation of a biotin-binding, thermostable, tetrameric protein containing an intra-monomeric disulphide bond. Burkavidin showed one main species as measured by isoelectric focusing, with lower isoelectric point (pI) than streptavidin. To exemplify the potential use of burkavidin in biotechnology, an artificial metalloenzyme was generated using this novel protein-scaffold and shown to exhibit enantioselectivity in a rhodium-catalysed hydrogenation reaction.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Diphenylphosphine
Host protein: Burkavidin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ~110
ee: 65
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid in a Biotinylated Pyrphos-Rhodium(I) System in a Protein Cavity

Chan, A.S.C.

Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 1999, 10, 1887-1893, 10.1016/S0957-4166(99)00193-7

The construction of a chiral catalyst system embedded at a specific site in a protein has been studied. The preparation of the biotinylated Pyrphos–Rh(I) complex attached to the binding site in avidin and its application to the asymmetric hydrogenation of itaconic acid have been investigated. By introducing the chiral Pyrphos–Rh(I) moiety into the constrained environment of the protein cavity it was found that the enantioselectivity of the system was significantly influenced by the tertiary conformation within the avidin cavity. The effects of reaction conditions such as temperature, hydrogen pressure, and the pH value of the buffer on enantioselectivity are reported.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 31
ee: 48
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Chemically Engineered Papain as Artificial Formate Dehydrogenase for NAD(P)H Regeneration

Salmain, M.

Org. Biomol. Chem. 2011, 9, 5720, 10.1039/c1ob05482a

Organometallic complexes of the general formula [(η6-arene)Ru(N⁁N)Cl]+ and [(η5-Cp*)Rh(N⁁N)Cl]+ where N⁁N is a 2,2′-dipyridylamine (DPA) derivative carrying a thiol-targeted maleimide group, 2,2′-bispyridyl (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or ethylenediamine (en) and arene is benzene, 2-chloro-N-[2-(phenyl)ethyl]acetamide or p-cymene were identified as catalysts for the stereoselective reduction of the enzyme cofactors NAD(P)+ into NAD(P)H with formate as a hydride donor. A thorough comparison of their effectiveness towards NAD+ (expressed as TOF) revealed that the RhIII complexes were much more potent catalysts than the RuII complexes. Within the RuII complex series, both the N⁁N and arene ligands forming the coordination sphere had a noticeable influence on the activity of the complexes. Covalent anchoring of the maleimide-functionalized RuII and RhIII complexes to the cysteine endoproteinase papain yielded hybrid metalloproteins, some of them displaying formate dehydrogenase activity with potentially interesting kinetic parameters.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Poly-pyridine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 52.1 h-1 for NAD+

Chemical Optimization of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin-Avidin Technology: (S)-Selective and Solvent-Tolerant Hydrogenation Catalysts via the Introduction of Chiral Amino Acid Spacers

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Commun. 2005, 4815, 10.1039/b509015f

Incorporation of biotinylated-[rhodium(diphosphine)]+ complexes, with enantiopure amino acid spacers, in streptavidin affords solvent-tolerant and selective artificial metalloenzymes: up to 91% ee (S) in the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Conversion of a Protein to a Homogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalyst by Site-Specific Modification with a Diphosphinerhodium (I) Moiety

Whitesides, G.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 306-307, 10.1021/ja00469a064

n/a


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 500
ee: 41
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Counter Propagation Artificial Neural Networks Modeling of an Enantioselectivity of Artificial Metalloenzymes

Novič, M.

Mol. Divers. 2007, 11, 141-152, 10.1007/s11030-008-9068-x

The counter propagation artificial neural networks (CP-ANNs) were used to develop a quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (QSSR) for a set of artificial metalloenzymes. The artificial metalloenzymes consist of biotinylated rhodium-diphosphine complexes incorporated in streptavidin mutants acting as host protein. Such hybrid catalysts have been shown to be good enantioselective hydrogenation catalysts for acetamidoacrylic acid. The descriptor-based models were constructed to predict enantiomeric excess (%ee) on the basis of the catalyst structures originating from docking simulations. 3D molecular descriptors for the docked ligands structures were computed. The relative arrangement of guest and host molecules was coded using distance descriptors (Rh-Cα interatomic distances); the diversity of the mutant proteins at the position S112 was coded with molecular descriptors for the sequence of three neighboring amino acids (T111-S112X-G113). The selection of testing samples for the external model validation was based on the Kohonen mapping. The final model trained by two thirds of the entire dataset was characterized by satisfactory statistical parameters for the external test set (R = 0.953 and RMS = 16.8 %ee). The proposed procedure of docking-based descriptor generation thus appears as a promising alternative to the full characterization of the complex structure by experimental or computational methods.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Diphenylphosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: Computational prediction of the enantioselectivity of the hydrogenation reaction catalysed by the ArM.

Directed Evolution of Hybrid Enzymes: Evolving Enantioselectivity of an Achiral Rh-Complex Anchored to a Protein

Reetz, M.T.

Chem. Commun. 2006, 4318, 10.1039/b610461d

The concept of utilizing the methods of directed evolution for tuning the enantioselectivity of synthetic achiral metal–ligand centers anchored to proteins has been implemented experimentally for the first time.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 4500
ee: 65
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Direct Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide by an Artificial Reductase Obtained by Substituting Rhodium for Zinc in the Carbonic Anhydrase Catalytic Center. A Mechanistic Study

Marino, T.

ACS Catal. 2015, 5, 5397-5409, 10.1021/acscatal.5b00185

Recently, a new artificial carbonic anhydrase enzyme in which the native zinc cation has been replaced with a Rh(I) has been proposed as a new reductase that is able to efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of olefins. In this paper, we propose the possible use of this modified enzyme in the direct hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. In our theoretical investigation, we have considered different reaction mechanisms such as reductive elimination and σ-bond metathesis. In addition, the release of the formic acid and the restoring of the catalytic cycle have also been studied. Results show that the σ-bond metathesis potential energy surface lies below the reactant species. The rate-determining step is the release of the product with an energy barrier of 12.8 kcal mol–1. On the basis of our results, we conclude that this artificial enzyme can efficiently catalyze the conversion of CO2 to HCOOH by a direct hydrogenation reaction.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Computational study of the reaction mechanism of the formation of HCOOH from CO2

Enantioselective Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketone Catalysed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Derived from Bovine β-Lactoglobulin

Salmain, M.

Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 11984, 10.1039/c2cc36980j

Artificial metalloproteins resulting from the embedding of half-sandwich Ru(II)/Rh(III) fatty acid derivatives within β-lactoglobulin catalysed the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of trifluoroacetophenone with modest to good conversions and fair ee's.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Poly-pyridine
Host protein: ß-lactoglobulin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 34
ee: 26
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Engineering a Dirhodium Artificial Metalloenzyme for Selective Olefin Cyclopropanation

Lewis, J.C.

Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 10.1038/ncomms8789

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) formed by incorporating synthetic metal catalysts into protein scaffolds have the potential to impart to chemical reactions selectivity that would be difficult to achieve using metal catalysts alone. In this work, we covalently link an alkyne-substituted dirhodium catalyst to a prolyl oligopeptidase containing a genetically encoded L-4-azidophenylalanine residue to create an ArM that catalyses olefin cyclopropanation. Scaffold mutagenesis is then used to improve the enantioselectivity of this reaction, and cyclopropanation of a range of styrenes and donor–acceptor carbene precursors were accepted. The ArM reduces the formation of byproducts, including those resulting from the reaction of dirhodium–carbene intermediates with water. This shows that an ArM can improve the substrate specificity of a catalyst and, for the first time, the water tolerance of a metal-catalysed reaction. Given the diversity of reactions catalysed by dirhodium complexes, we anticipate that dirhodium ArMs will provide many unique opportunities for selective catalysis.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Poly-carboxylic acid
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 74
ee: 92
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Enzyme Activity by Design: An Artificial Rhodium Hydroformylase for Linear Aldehydes

Jarvis, A.G.; Kamer, P.C.J.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 129, 13784-13788, 10.1002/ange.201705753


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Acac; Diphenylphosphine
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydroformylation
Max TON: 409
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Selectivity for the linear product over the branched product