11 publications

11 publications

A Rhodium Complex-Linked β-Barrel Protein as a Hybrid Biocatalyst for Phenylacetylene Polymerization

Hayashi, T

Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 9756, 10.1039/C2CC35165J

Our group recently prepared a hybrid catalyst containing a rhodium complex, Rh(Cp)(cod), with a maleimide moiety at the peripheral position of the Cp ligand. This compound was then inserted into a β-barrel protein scaffold of a mutant of aponitrobindin (Q96C) via a covalent linkage. The hybrid protein is found to act as a polymerization catalyst and preferentially yields trans-poly(phenylacetylene) (PPA), although the rhodium complex without the protein scaffold normally produces cis PPA.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp*
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the Transmembrane Protein FhuA

Okuda, J.

Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2016, 12, 1314-1321, 10.3762/bjoc.12.124

Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev). Copper(I) was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II) was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Terpyridine
Host protein: FhuA
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes as Catalysts for Oxidative Lignin Degradation

Jarvis, A.G.

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 15100-15107, 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03568

We report novel artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs), containing tris(pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA), for the atom economic oxidation of lignin β-O-4 model compounds, using hydrogen peroxide. The protein scaffold alters the selectivity of the reaction from a low yielding cleavage reaction when using the parent Fe-tpa complex to a high yielding benzylic alcohol oxidation when using the complex incorporated into a protein scaffold, SCP-2L A100C. Engineering the protein scaffold to incorporate glutamic acid was found to improve the ArM activity, showing that rational design of the protein environment using metal binding amino acids can be a first step toward improving the overall activity of an artificial metalloenzyme.


Metal: Fe
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Lignin oxidation
Max TON: 20
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction performed with a lignin model compound and hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent

A Whole Cell E. coli Display Platform for Artificial Metalloenzymes: Poly(phenylacetylene) Production with a Rhodium–Nitrobindin Metalloprotein

Schwaneberg, U.

ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 2611-2614, 10.1021/acscatal.7b04369

Whole cell catalysis is, in many cases, a prerequisite for the cost-effective production of chemicals by biotechnological means. Synthetic metal catalysts for bioorthogonal reactions can be inactivated within cells due to abundant thiol derivatives. Here, a cell surface display-based whole cell biohybrid catalyst system (termed ArMt bugs) is reported as a generally applicable platform to unify cost-effective whole cell catalysis with biohybrid catalysis. An inactivated esterase autotransporter is employed to display the nitrobindin protein scaffold with a Rh catalyst on the E. coli surface. Stereoselective polymerization of phenylacetylene yielded a high turnover number (TON) (39 × 106 cell–1) for the ArMt bugs conversion platform.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp
Host protein: Nitrobindin variant NB4
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 3046
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Calculated in vivo TON assuming 12800 metalloenzymes per E. coli cell

Construction of a Hybrid Biocatalyst Containing a Covalently-Linked Terpyridine Metal Complex within a Cavity of Aponitrobindin

Onoda, A.

J. Inorg. Biochem. 2016, 158, 55-61, 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.12.026

A hybrid biocatalyst containing a metal terpyridine (tpy) complex within a rigid β-barrel protein nitrobindin (NB) is constructed. A tpy ligand with a maleimide group, N-[2-([2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridin]-4′-yloxy)ethyl]maleimide (1), was covalently linked to Cys96 inside the cavity of NB to prepare a conjugate NB–1. Binding of Cu2 +, Zn2 +, or Co2 + ion to the tpy ligand in NB–1 was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and ESI–TOF MS measurements. Cu2 +-bound NB–1 is found to catalyze a Diels–Alder reaction between azachalcone and cyclopentadiene in 22% yield, which is higher than that of the Cu2 +–tpy complex without the NB matrix. The results suggest that the hydrophobic cavity close to the copper active site within the NB scaffold supports the binding of the two substrates, dienophile and diene, to promote the reaction.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Terpyridine
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Dual Modification of a Triple-Stranded β-Helix Nanotube with Ru and Re Metal Complexes to Promote Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2

Ueno, T.

Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 2074, 10.1039/C0CC03015E

We have constructed a robust β-helical nanotube from the component proteins of bacteriophage T4 and modified this nanotube with RuII(bpy)3 and ReI(bpy)(CO)3Cl complexes. The photocatalytic system arranged on the tube catalyzes the reduction of CO2 with higher reactivity than that of the mixture of the monomeric forms.


Metal: Re
Ligand type: Bipyridine; CO
Host protein: [(gp5βf)3]2
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Reaction: CO2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Host protein: [(gp5βf)3]2
Anchoring strategy: Lysine-succinimide
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: CO2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Enzyme Activity by Design: An Artificial Rhodium Hydroformylase for Linear Aldehydes

Jarvis, A.G.; Kamer, P.C.J.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 129, 13784-13788, 10.1002/ange.201705753


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Acac; Diphenylphosphine
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydroformylation
Max TON: 409
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Selectivity for the linear product over the branched product

Molecular Design of Heteroprotein Assemblies Providing a Bionanocup as a Chemical Reactor

Ueno, T.; Watanabe, Y.

Small 2008, 4, 50-54, 10.1002/smll.200700855

A bionanocup chemical reactor is constructed from a heteroprotein assembly from bacteriophage T4. The preparation of a stable iron(III) porphyrin–bionanocup composite is described. The hydrophobic cup provides a space suitable for the fixation of low‐water‐solubility iron(III) porphyrins. The application of the iron(III) porphyrin–bionanocup composites for the catalysis of sulfoxidation of thioanisoles is demonstrated (see figure).


Metal: Fe
Host protein: (gp27-gp5)3
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Photoinduced Electron Transfer within Supramolecular Hemoprotein Co-Assemblies and Heterodimers Containing Fe and Zn Porphyrins

Oohora, K.

J. Inorg. Biochem. 2019, 193, 42-51, 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.01.001

Electron transfer (ET) events occurring within metalloprotein complexes are among the most important classes of reactions in biological systems. This report describes a photoinduced electron transfer between Zn porphyrin and Fe porphyrin within a supramolecular cytochrome b562 (Cyt b562) co-assembly or heterodimer with a well-defined rigid structure formed by a metalloporphyrin–heme pocket interaction and a hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface. The photoinduced charge separation (CS: kCS = 320–600 s−1) and subsequent charge recombination (CR: kCR = 580–930 s−1) were observed in both the Cyt b562 co-assembly and the heterodimer. In contrast, interestingly, no ET events were observed in a system comprised of a flexible and structurally-undefined co-assembly and heterodimers which lack the key hydrogen-bond interaction at the protein interface. Moreover, analysis of the kinetic constants of CS and CR of the heterodimer using the Marcus equation suggests that a single-step ET reaction occurs in the system. These findings provide strong support that the rigid hemoprotein-assembling system containing an appropriate hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface is essential for monitoring the ET reaction.


Metal: Fe; Zn
Ligand type: Protoporphyrin IX
Host protein: Cytochrome b562
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide; Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Electron transfer
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Rhodium-Complex-Linked Hybrid Biocatalyst: Stereo-Controlled Phenylacetylene Polymerization within an Engineered Protein Cavity

ChemCatChem 2014, n/a-n/a, 10.1002/cctc.201301055

The incorporation of a Rh complex with a maleimide moiety into the cavity of the nitrobindin β‐barrel scaffold by a covalent linkage at the 96‐position (Cys) provides a hybrid biocatalyst that promotes the polymerization of phenylacetylene. The appropriate structural optimization of the cavity by mutagenesis enhances the stereoselectivity of the polymer with a trans content of 82 % at 25 °C and pH 8.0. The X‐ray crystal structure of one of the hybrid biocatalysts at a resolution of 2.0 Å reveals that the Rh complex is located in the β‐barrel cavity without any perturbation to the total protein structure. Crystal structure analysis and molecular modeling support the fact that the stereoselectivity is enhanced by the effective control of monomer access to the Rh complex within the limited space of the protein cavity.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp*
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3WJC
Notes: ---

Semi-Synthesis of an Artificial Scandium(III) Enzyme with a β-Helical Bio-Nanotube

Ueno, T.

Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 11424, 10.1039/C2DT31030A

We have succeeded in preparing semi-synthesized proteins bound to Sc3+ ion which can promote an epoxide ring-opening reaction. The Sc3+ binding site was created on the surface of [(gp5βf)3]2 (N. Yokoi et al., Small, 2010, 6, 1873) by introducing a cysteine residue for conjugation of a bpy moiety using a thiol–maleimide coupling reaction. Three cysteine mutants [(gp5βf_X)3]2 (X = G18C, L47C, N51C) were prepared to introduce a bpy in different positions because it had been reported that Sc3+ ion can serve as a Lewis-acid catalyst for an epoxide ring-opening reaction upon binding of epoxide to bpy and two –ROH groups. G18C_bpy with Sc3+ can accelerate the rate of catalysis of the epoxide ring-opening reaction and has the highest rate of conversion among the three mutants. The value is more than 20 times higher than that of the mixtures of [(gp5βf)3]2/2,2′-bipyridine and L-threonine/2,2′-bipyridine. The elevated activity was obtained by the cooperative effect of stabilizing the Sc3+ coordination and accumulation of substrates on the protein surface. Thus, we expect that the semi-synthetic approach can provide insights into new rational design of artificial metalloenzymes.


Metal: Sc
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Host protein: [(gp5βf)3]2
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---