Artificial Iron Hydrogenase Made by Covalent Grafting of Knölker's Complex into Xylanase: Application in Asymmetric Hydrogenation of an Aryl Ketone in Water
We report a new artificial hydrogenase made by covalent anchoring of the iron Knölker's complex to a xylanase S212C variant. This artificial metalloenzyme was found to be able to catalyze efficiently the transfer hydrogenation of the benchmark substrate trifluoroacetophenone by sodium formate in water, yielding the corresponding secondary alcohol as a racemic. The reaction proceeded more than threefold faster with the XlnS212CK biohybrid than with the Knölker's complex alone. In addition, efficient conversion of trifluoroacetophenone to its corresponding alcohol was reached within 60 H with XlnS212CK, whereas a ≈2.5-fold lower conversion was observed with Knölker's complex alone as catalyst. Moreover, the data were rationalized with a computational strategy suggesting the key factors of the selectivity. These results suggested that the Knölker's complex was most likely flexible and could experience free rotational reorientation within the active-site pocket of Xln A, allowing it to access the subsite pocket populated by trifluoroacetophenone.
Rational Design of Heme Enzymes for Biodegradation of Pollutants Toward a Green FutureReview
Environmental pollutants, such as industrial dyes and halophenols, are harmful to human health, which urgently demand degradation. Bioremediation has been shown to be a cost‐effective and ecofriendly approach. As reviewed herein, significant progress has been made in the last decade for biodegradation of both industrial dyes and halophenols, by engineering of native dye‐decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) and dehaloperoxidases (DHPs), and by design of artificial heme enzymes in both native and de novo protein scaffolds. The catalytic efficiency of artificial DyPs and DHPs can be rationally designed comparable to or even beyond those of natural counterparts. The enzymes are on their way from laboratory to industry and will play more crucial roles in environmental protection toward a green future.