16 publications

16 publications

An Enantioselective Artificial Metallo-Hydratase

Roelfes, G.

Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 3578, 10.1039/c3sc51449h

Direct addition of water to alkenes to generate important chiral alcohols as key motif in a variety of natural products still remains a challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we report the first enantioselective artificial metallo-hydratase, based on the transcription factor LmrR, which catalyses the conjugate addition of water to generate chiral β-hydroxy ketones with enantioselectivities up to 84% ee. A mutagenesis study revealed that an aspartic acid and a phenylalanine located in the active site play a key role in achieving efficient catalysis and high enantioselectivities.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 30
ee: 84
PDB: 3F8B
Notes: ---

An NAD(P)H-Dependent Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase for Multienzymatic Cascades

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 5781-5784, 10.1021/jacs.6b02470

Enzymes typically depend on either NAD(P)H or FADH2 as hydride source for reduction purposes. In contrast, organometallic catalysts most often rely on isopropanol or formate to generate the reactive hydride moiety. Here we show that incorporation of a Cp*Ir cofactor possessing a biotin moiety and 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline into streptavidin yields an NAD(P)H-dependent artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase). This ATHase (0.1 mol%) catalyzes imine reduction with 1 mM NADPH (2 mol%), which can be concurrently regenerated by a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) using only 1.2 equiv of glucose. A four-enzyme cascade consisting of the ATHase, the GDH, a monoamine oxidase, and a catalase leads to the production of enantiopure amines.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >999
ee: >99
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Copper Enzymes for Asymmetric Diels–AlderReactions

Kamer, P.C.J.; Laan, W.

ChemCatChem 2013, 5, 1184-1191, 10.1002/cctc.201200671

The development of artificial copper enzymes from sterol carrier protein type 2 like domain (SCP‐2L) for the use in asymmetric catalysis was explored. For this purpose, proteins were modified with various nitrogen donor ligands. Maleimide‐containing ligands were found most suitable for selective cysteine bio‐conjugation. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to confirm copper binding to an introduced phenanthroline ligand, which was introduced in two unique cysteine containing SCP‐2L mutants. Copper adducts of several modified SCP‐2L templates were applied in asymmetric Diels–Alder reactions. A clear influence of both the protein environment and the introduced ligand was found in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction between azachalcone and cyclopentadiene. A promising enantioselectivity of 25 % ee was obtained by using SCP‐2L V83C modified with phenanthroline–maleimide ligand. Good endo selectivity was observed for SCP‐2L modified with the dipicolylamine‐based nitrogen donor ligand. These artificial metalloenzymes provide a suitable starting point for the implementation of various available techniques to optimise the performance of this system.


Metal: Cu
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 9.6
ee: 25
PDB: 1IKT
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes based on Protein Cavities: Exploring the Effect of Altering the Metal Ligand Attachment Position by Site Directed Mutagenesis

Distefano, M.D.

Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1999, 9, 79-84, 10.1016/S0960-894X(98)00684-2

In an effort to construct catalysts with enzyme-like properties, we are employing a small, cavity-containing protein as a scaffold for the attachment of catalytic groups. In earlier work we demonstrated that a phenanthroline ligand could be introduced into the cavity of the protein ALBP and used to catalyze ester hydrolysis. To examine the effect of positioning the phenanthroline catalyst at different locations wthin the protein cavity, three new constucts — Phen60, Phen72 and Phen104 — were prepared. Each new conjugate was characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, guanidine hydrochloride denaturation, gel filtration chromatography, and CD spectroscopy to confirm the preparation of the desired contruct. Analysis of reactions containing Ala-OiPr showed that Phen60 catalyzed ester hydrolysis with less selectivity than ALBP-Phen while Phen72 promoted this same reaction with higher selectivity. Reactions with Tyr-OMe were catalyzed with higher selectivity by Phen60 and more rapidly by Phen104. These results demonstrate that both the rates and selectivities of hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by these constructs are dependent on the precise site of attachment of the metal ligand within the protein cavity.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 1 to 4
ee: 61 to 94
PDB: ---
Notes: Varied attachment position

Artificial Metalloenzymes with the Neocarzinostatin Scaffold: Toward a Biocatalyst for the Diels–Alder Reaction

Mahy, J.-P.; Ricoux, R.

ChemBioChem 2016, 17, 433-440, 10.1002/cbic.201500445

A new artificial enzyme formed by associating NCS‐3.24 with a copper complex catalyzed the Diels–Alder cyclization of cyclopentadiene with 2‐azachalcone and led to an increase in the formation of the exo‐products. Molecular modeling proposed the preferred relative positioning of both the Trojan horse complex and the two substrates.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 33
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Up to endo/exo ratio 62:38

A Semisynthetic Metalloenzyme based on a Protein Cavity that Catalyzes the Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Ester and Amide Substrates

Distefano, M.D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11643-11652, 10.1021/JA970820K

In an effort to prepare selective and efficient catalysts for ester and amide hydrolysis, we are designing systems that position a coordinated metal ion within a defined protein cavity. Here, the preparation of a protein-1,10-phenanthroline conjugate and the hydrolytic chemistry catalyzed by this construct are described. Iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline was used to modify a unique cysteine residue in ALBP (adipocyte lipid binding protein) to produce the conjugate ALBP-Phen. The resulting material was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry, UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography, and thiol titration. The stability of ALBP-Phen was evaluated by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation experiments, and the ability of the conjugate to bind Cu(II) was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) catalyzes the enantioselective hydrolysis of several unactivated amino acid esters under mild conditions (pH 6.1, 25 °C) at rates 32−280-fold above the background rate in buffered aqueous solution. In 24 h incubations 0.70 to 7.6 turnovers were observed with enantiomeric excesses ranging from 31% ee to 86% ee. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) also promotes the hydrolysis of an aryl amide substrate under more vigorous conditions (pH 6.1, 37 °C) at a rate 1.6 × 104-fold above the background rate. The kinetics of this amide hydrolysis reaction fit the Michaelis−Menten relationship characteristic of enzymatic processes. The rate enhancements for ester and amide hydrolysis reported here are 102−103 lower than those observed for free Cu(II) but comparable to those previously reported for Cu(II) complexes.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 1 to 8
ee: 39 to 86
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Breaking Symmetry: Engineering Single-Chain Dimeric Streptavidin as Host for Artificial Metalloenzymes

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 15869-15878, 10.1021/jacs.9b06923

The biotin–streptavidin technology has been extensively exploited to engineer artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) that catalyze a dozen different reactions. Despite its versatility, the homotetrameric nature of streptavidin (Sav) and the noncooperative binding of biotinylated cofactors impose two limitations on the genetic optimization of ArMs: (i) point mutations are reflected in all four subunits of Sav, and (ii) the noncooperative binding of biotinylated cofactors to Sav may lead to an erosion in the catalytic performance, depending on the cofactor:biotin-binding site ratio. To address these challenges, we report on our efforts to engineer a (monovalent) single-chain dimeric streptavidin (scdSav) as scaffold for Sav-based ArMs. The versatility of scdSav as host protein is highlighted for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of prochiral imines using [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl] as cofactor. By capitalizing on a more precise genetic fine-tuning of the biotin-binding vestibule, unrivaled levels of activity and selectivity were achieved for the reduction of challenging prochiral imines. Comparison of the saturation kinetic data and X-ray structures of [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl]·scdSav with a structurally related [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl]·monovalent scdSav highlights the advantages of the presence of a single biotinylated cofactor precisely localized within the biotin-binding vestibule of the monovalent scdSav. The practicality of scdSav-based ArMs was illustrated for the reduction of the salsolidine precursor (500 mM) to afford (R)-salsolidine in 90% ee and >17 000 TONs. Monovalent scdSav thus provides a versatile scaffold to evolve more efficient ArMs for in vivo catalysis and large-scale applications.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 17000
ee: 98
PDB: 6S4Q
Notes: Additional PDB: 6S50

Chemical Conversion of a DNA-Binding Protein into a Site-Specific Nuclease

Sigman, D.S.

Science 1987, 237, 1197-1201, 10.1126/science.2820056

The tryptophan gene (trp) repressor of Escherichia coli has been converted into a site-specific nuclease by covalently attaching it to the 1,10-phenanthroline-copper complex. In its cuprous form, the coordination complex with hydrogen peroxide as a coreactant cleaves DNA by oxidatively attacking the deoxyribose moiety. The chemistry for the attachment of 1,10-phenanthroline to the trp repressor involves modification of lysyl residues with iminothiolane followed by alkylation of the resulting sulfhydryl groups with 5-iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline. The modified trp repressor cleaves the operators of aroH and trpEDCBA upon the addition of cupric ion and thiol in a reaction dependent on the corepressor L-tryptophan. Scission was restricted to the binding site for the repressor, defined by deoxyribonuclease I footprinting. Since DNA-binding proteins have recognition sequences approximately 20 base pairs long, the nucleolytic activities derived from them could be used to isolate long DNA fragments for sequencing or chromosomal mapping.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidative cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Conversion of a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Protein into a Site-Specific DNA Cleavage Agent

Ebright, R.H.; Gunasekeram, A.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1990, 87, 2882-2886, 10.1073/pnas.87.8.2882

Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein [de Crombrugghe, B., Busby, S. & Buc, H. (1984) Science 224, 831-838; and Pabo, C. & Sauer, R. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 293-321]. In this work, CAP has been converted into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent by incorporation of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline at amino acid 10 of the helix-turn-helix motif. [(N-Acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP binds to a 22-base-pair DNA recognition site with Kobs = 1 x 10(8) M-1. In the presence of Cu(II) and reducing agent, [(N-acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP cleaves DNA at four adjacent nucleotides on each DNA strand within the DNA recognition site. The DNA cleavage reaction has been demonstrated using 40-base-pair and 7164-base-pair DNA substrates. The DNA cleavage reaction is not inhibited by dam methylation of the DNA substrate. Such semisynthetic site-specific DNA cleavage agents have potential applications in chromosome mapping, cloning, and sequencing.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidative cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Cross-Regulation of an Artificial Metalloenzyme

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 10156-10160, 10.1002/anie.201702181

Cross‐regulation of complex biochemical reaction networks is an essential feature of living systems. In a biomimetic spirit, we report on our efforts to program the temporal activation of an artificial metalloenzyme via cross‐regulation by a natural enzyme. In the presence of urea, urease slowly releases ammonia that reversibly inhibits an artificial transfer hydrogenase. Addition of an acid, which acts as fuel, allows to maintain the system out of equilibrium.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 96
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-regulated reduction of the antibiotic enrofloxacin by an ArM.

Enantioselective Artificial Metalloenzymes by Creation of a Novel Active Site at the Protein Dimer Interface

Roelfes, G.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 7472-7475, 10.1002/anie.201202070

A game of two halves: Artificial metalloenzymes are generated by forming a novel active site on the dimer interface of the transcription factor LmrR. Two copper centers are incorporated by binding to ligands in each half of the dimer. With this system up to 97 % ee was obtained in the benchmark CuII catalyzed Diels–Alder reaction (see scheme).


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Phenanthroline
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 32.7
ee: 97
PDB: 3F8B
Notes: ---

Piano-Stool d(6)-Rhodium(III) Complexes of Chelating Pyridine-Based Ligands and their Papain Bioconjugates for the Catalysis of Transfer Hydrogenation of Aryl Ketones in Aqueous Medium

Mangiatordi, G.F.; Salmain, M.

J. Mol. Catal. B: Enzym. 2015, 122, 314-322, 10.1016/j.molcatb.2015.10.007

Two half-sandwich d6-rhodium(III) complexes of the general formula [(η5-Cp*)Rh(N^N)Cl]Cl where N^N is a phenanthroline or a bispyridine methane derivative carrying a thiol-targeting maleimide or chloroacetamide function were synthesized and characterized. Both complexes were able to catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone in aqueous medium using formate or phosphite as hydrogen donor. Covalent anchoring of these complexes to the cysteine endoproteinase papain yielded hybrid metalloproteins with transfer hydrogenase properties. Under optimized conditions of pH, hydrogen donor concentration and catalyst load, conversion of substrate was nearly quantitative within 24 h at 40 °C and the (S)-enantiomer was obtained preferably albeit with a modest enantiomeric excess of 7–10%. Covalent docking simulations complemented the experimental findings suggesting a molecular rationale for the observed low enantioselectivity. The harmonious use of experimental and theoretical approaches represents an unprecedented starting point for driving the rational design of artificial metalloenzymes built up from papain with higher catalytic efficiency.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 30
ee: 9
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Di(2-pyridyl)
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 20
ee: 5
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Receptor-Based Artificial Metalloenzymes on Living Human Cells

Ghattas, W.; Mahy, J.-P.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 8756-8762, 10.1021/jacs.8b04326

Artificial metalloenzymes are known to be promising tools for biocatalysis, but their recent compartmentalization has led to compatibly with cell components thus shedding light on possible therapeutic applications. We prepared and characterized artificial metalloenzymes based on the A2A adenosine receptor embedded in the cytoplasmic membranes of living human cells. The wild type receptor was chemically engineered into metalloenzymes by its association with strong antagonists that were covalently bound to copper(II) catalysts. The resulting cells enantioselectively catalyzed the abiotic Diels–Alder cycloaddition reaction of cyclopentadiene and azachalcone. The prospects of this strategy lie in the organ-confined in vivo preparation of receptor-based artificial metalloenzymes for the catalysis of reactions exogenous to the human metabolism. These could be used for the targeted synthesis of either drugs or deficient metabolites and for the activation of prodrugs, leading to therapeutic tools with unforeseen applications.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 24
ee: 35
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Supramolecular Assembly of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Dimeric Protein LmrR as Promiscuous Scaffold

Roelfes, G.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 9796-9799, 10.1021/jacs.5b05790

Supramolecular anchoring of transition metal complexes to a protein scaffold is an attractive approach to the construction of artificial metalloenzymes since this is conveniently achieved by self-assembly. Here, we report a novel design for supramolecular artificial metalloenzymes that exploits the promiscuity of the central hydrophobic cavity of the transcription factor Lactococcal multidrug resistance Regulator (LmrR) as a generic binding site for planar coordination complexes that do not provide specific protein binding interactions. The success of this approach is manifested in the excellent enantioselectivities that are achieved in the Cu(II) catalyzed enantioselective Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indoles.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 11.1
ee: 94
PDB: 3F8B
Notes: ---

Synthesis of a Heterogeneous Artificial Metallolipase with Chimeric Catalytic Activity

Filice, M.

Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 9324-9327, 10.1039/C5CC02450A

A solid-phase strategy using lipase as a biomolecular scaffold to produce a large amount of Cu2+-metalloenzyme is proposed here. The application of this protocol on different 3D cavities of the enzyme allows creating a heterogeneous artificial metallolipase showing chimeric catalytic activity. The artificial catalyst was assessed in Diels–Alder cycloaddition reactions and cascade reactions showing excellent catalytic properties.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 411
ee: 92
PDB: ---
Notes: ArM is immobilized on Sepabeads. Endo/exo = 93.5%

Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cascade reaction: Ester hydrolysis (natural function of the host protein) followed by reduction (function of the designed ArM).

(η6-Arene) Ruthenium(II) Complexes and Metallo-Papain Hybrid as Lewis Acid Catalysts of Diels–Alder Reaction in Water

Salmain, M.

Dalton Trans. 2010, 39, 5605, 10.1039/c001630f

Covalent embedding of a (η6-arene) ruthenium(II) complex into the protein papain gives rise to a metalloenzyme displaying a catalytic efficiency for a Lewis acid-mediated catalysed Diels–Alder reaction enhanced by two orders of magnitude in water.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Benzene; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 440
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 220 h-1