9 publications

9 publications

A Cofactor Approach to Copper-Dependent Catalytic Antibodies

Janda, K. D.; Nicholas, K. M.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2002, 10.1073/pnas.052001099

A strategy for the preparation of semisynthetic copper(II)-based catalytic metalloproteins is described in which a metal-binding bis-imidazole cofactor is incorporated into the combining site of the aldolase antibody 38C2. Antibody 38C2 features a large hydrophobic-combining site pocket with a highly nucleophilic lysine residue, LysH93, that can be covalently modified. A comparison of several lactone and anhydride reagents shows that the latter are the most effective and general derivatizing agents for the 38C2 Lys residue. A bis-imidazole anhydride (5) was efficiently prepared from N-methyl imidazole. The 38C2–5-Cu conjugate was prepared by either (i) initial derivatization of 38C2 with 5 followed by metallation with CuCl2, or (ii) precoordination of 5 with CuCl2 followed by conjugation with 38C2. The resulting 38C2–5-Cu conjugate was an active catalyst for the hydrolysis of the coordinating picolinate ester 11, following Michaelis–Menten kinetics [kcat(11) = 2.3 min−1 and Km(11) 2.2 mM] with a rate enhancement [kcat(11)kuncat(11)] of 2.1 × 105. Comparison of the second-order rate constants of the modified 38C2 and the Cu(II)-bis-imidazolyl complex k(6-CuCl2) gives a rate enhancement of 3.5 × 104 in favor of the antibody complex with an effective molarity of 76.7 M, revealing a significant catalytic benefit to the binding of the bis-imidazolyl ligand into 38C2.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bisimidazol
Host protein: Antibody 38C2
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on Biotin-Avidin Technology for the Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones by Transfer Hydrogenation

Ward, T. R.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2005, 10.1073/pnas.0409684102


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 92
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 30
ee: 63
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Conversion of a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Protein into a Site-Specific DNA Cleavage Agent

Ebright, R. H.; Gunasekeram, A.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 1990, 10.1073/pnas.87.8.2882


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidative cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

De Novo Design of Catalytic Proteins

DeGrado, W. F.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2004, 10.1073/pnas.0404387101


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Due Ferro 1
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: >100
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM ≈ 1540 M-1*min-1

Designing a Functional Type 2 Copper Center that has Nitrite Reductase Activity Within α-Helical Coiled Coils

Pecoraro, V. L.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2012, 10.1073/pnas.1212893110


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TRI peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >5
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Nitrite reduction

Design of a Switchable Eliminase

DeGrado, W. F.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 10.1073/pnas.1018191108


Metal: Ca
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Kemp elimination
Max TON: >40
ee: ---
PDB: 2KZ2
Notes: Ca acts as allosteric regulator, catalytically active site contains no metal

Design of Metal Cofactors Activated by a Protein–Protein Electron Transfer System

Ueno, T.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0510968103


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Heme oxygenase (HO)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1WZD
Notes: ---

Enzyme stabilization via computationally guided protein stapling

Fasan, R.; Khare, S. D.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2017, 10.1073/pnas.1708907114


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 4740
ee: 99.2
PDB: ---
Notes: Stapling of protein via thioether bond formation between the noncanonical amino acid O-2-bromoethyl tyrosine and cysteine

Roles of Glutamates and Metal Ions in a Rationally Designed Nitric Oxide Reductase Based on Myoglobin

Lu, Y.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010, 10.1073/pnas.1000526107


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: NO reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3M39
Notes: X-ray structure of mutant I107E.

Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: NO reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3M3A
Notes: X-ray structure of mutant I107E.