3 publications

3 publications

Assembly and Evolution of Artificial Metalloenzymes within E. coli Nissle 1917 for Enantioselective and Site-Selective Functionalization of C─H and C═C Bonds

Hartwig, J.F.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2022, 144, 883-890, 10.1021/jacs.1c10975

The potential applications afforded by the generation and reactivity of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) in microorganisms are vast. We show that a non-pathogenic E. coli strain, Nissle 1917 (EcN), is a suitable host for the creation of ArMs from cytochrome P450s and artificial heme cofactors. An outer-membrane receptor in EcN transports an iridium porphyrin into the cell, and the Ir-CYP119 (CYP119 containing iridium porphyrin) assembled in vivo catalyzes carbene insertions into benzylic C–H bonds enantioselectively and site-selectively. The application of EcN as a whole-cell screening platform eliminates the need for laborious processing procedures, drastically increases the ease and throughput of screening, and accelerates the development of Ir-CYP119 with improved catalytic properties. Studies to identify the transport machinery suggest that a transporter different from the previously assumed ChuA receptor serves to usher the iridium porphyrin into the cytoplasm.

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: CYP119
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 1314
ee: 84
PDB: ---
Notes: In vivo

Computationally Driven Design of an Artificial Metalloenzyme Using Supramolecular Anchoring Strategies of Iridium Complexes to Alcohol Dehydrogenase

Jäger, C.M.; Pordea, A.

Faraday Discuss. 2022, 10.1039/d1fd00070e

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) confer non-biological reactivities to biomolecules, whilst taking advantage of the biomolecular architecture in terms of their selectivity and renewable origin. In particular, the design of ArMs by the supramolecular anchoring of metal catalysts to protein hosts provides flexible and easy to optimise systems. The use of cofactor dependent enzymes as hosts gives the advantage of both a (hydrophobic) binding site for the substrate and a cofactor pocket to accommodate the catalyst. Here, we present a computationally driven design approach of ArMs for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of cyclic imines, starting from the NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter brockii (TbADH). We tested and developed a molecular docking workflow to define and optimize iridium catalysts with high affinity for the cofactor binding site of TbADH. The workflow uses high throughput docking of compound libraries to identify key structural motifs for high affinity, followed by higher accuracy docking methods on smaller, focused ligand and catalyst libraries. Iridium sulfonamide catalysts were selected and synthesised, containing either a triol, a furane, or a carboxylic acid to provide the interaction with the cofactor binding pocket. IC50 values of the resulting complexes during TbADH-catalysed alcohol oxidation were determined by competition experiments and were between 4.410 mM and 0.052 mM, demonstrating the affinity of the iridium complexes for either the substrate or the cofactor binding pocket of TbADH. The catalytic activity of the free iridium complexes in solution showed a maximal turnover number (TON) of 90 for the reduction of salsolidine by the triol-functionalised iridium catalyst, whilst in the presence of TbADH, only the iridium catalyst with the triol anchoring functionality showed activity for the same reaction (TON of 36 after 24 h). The observation that the artificial metalloenzymes developed here lacked stereoselectivity demonstrates the need for the further investigation and optimisation of the ArM. Our results serve as a starting point for the design of robust artificial metalloenzymes, exploiting supramolecular anchoring to natural NAD(P)H binding pockets.

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Alcohol dehydrogenase
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 81±0.80
ee: ---
Notes: ---

De Novo Metalloprotein Design


DeGrado, W.F.

Nat. Rev. Chem. 2022, 6, 31-50, 10.1038/s41570-021-00339-5

Natural metalloproteins perform many functions — ranging from sensing to electron transfer and catalysis — in which the position and property of each ligand and metal are dictated by protein structure. De novo protein design aims to define an amino acid sequence that encodes a specific structure and function, providing a critical test of the hypothetical inner workings of (metallo)proteins. To date, de novo metalloproteins have used simple, symmetric tertiary structures — uncomplicated by the large size and evolutionary marks of natural proteins — to interrogate structure–function hypotheses. In this Review, we discuss de novo design applications, such as proteins that induce complex, increasingly asymmetric ligand geometries to achieve function, as well as the use of more canonical ligand geometries to achieve stability. De novo design has been used to explore how proteins fine-tune redox potentials and catalyse both oxidative and hydrolytic reactions. With an increased understanding of structure–function relationships, functional proteins including O2-dependent oxidases, fast hydrolases and multi-proton/multielectron reductases have been created. In addition, proteins can now be designed using xenobiological metals or cofactors and principles from inorganic chemistry to derive new-to-nature functions. These results and the advances in computational protein design suggest a bright future for the de novo design of diverse, functional metalloproteins.

Notes: ---