42 publications

42 publications

Abiological Catalysis by Artificial Haem Proteins Containing Noble Metals in Place of Iron

Hartwig, J. F.

Nature, 2016, 10.1038/nature17968

Enzymes that contain metal ions—that is, metalloenzymes—possess the reactivity of a transition metal centre and the potential of molecular evolution to modulate the reactivity and substrate-selectivity of the system1. By exploiting substrate promiscuity and protein engineering, the scope of reactions catalysed by native metalloenzymes has been expanded recently to include abiological transformations2,3. However, this strategy is limited by the inherent reactivity of metal centres in native metalloenzymes. To overcome this limitation, artificial metalloproteins have been created by incorporating complete, noble-metal complexes within proteins lacking native metal sites1,4,5. The interactions of the substrate with the protein in these systems are, however, distinct from those with the native protein because the metal complex occupies the substrate binding site. At the intersection of these approaches lies a third strategy, in which the native metal of a metalloenzyme is replaced with an abiological metal with reactivity different from that of the metal in a native protein6,7,8. This strategy could create artificial enzymes for abiological catalysis within the natural substrate binding site of an enzyme that can be subjected to directed evolution. Here we report the formal replacement of iron in Fe-porphyrin IX (Fe-PIX) proteins with abiological, noble metals to create enzymes that catalyse reactions not catalysed by native Fe-enzymes or other metalloenzymes9,10. In particular, we prepared modified myoglobins containing an Ir(Me) site that catalyse the functionalization of C–H bonds to form C–C bonds by carbene insertion and add carbenes to both β-substituted vinylarenes and unactivated aliphatic α-olefins. We conducted directed evolution of the Ir(Me)-myoglobin and generated mutants that form either enantiomer of the products of C–H insertion and catalyse the enantio- and diastereoselective cyclopropanation of unactivated olefins. The presented method of preparing artificial haem proteins containing abiological metal porphyrins sets the stage for the generation of artificial enzymes from innumerable combinations of PIX-protein scaffolds and unnatural metal cofactors to catalyse a wide range of abiological transformations.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 7260
ee: 68
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 92
ee: 84
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Clamp-Like Biohybrid Catalyst for DNA Oxidation

Nolte, R. J. M.

Nat. Chem., 2013, 10.1038/NCHEM.1752

In processive catalysis, a catalyst binds to a substrate and remains bound as it performs several consecutive reactions, as exemplified by DNA polymerases. Processivity is essential in nature and is often mediated by a clamp-like structure that physically tethers the catalyst to its (polymeric) template. In the case of the bacteriophage T4 replisome, a dedicated clamp protein acts as a processivity mediator by encircling DNA and subsequently recruiting its polymerase. Here we use this DNA-binding protein to construct a biohybrid catalyst. Conjugation of the clamp protein to a chemical catalyst with sequence-specific oxidation behaviour formed a catalytic clamp that can be loaded onto a DNA plasmid. The catalytic activity of the biohybrid catalyst was visualized using a procedure based on an atomic force microscopy method that detects and spatially locates oxidized sites in DNA. Varying the experimental conditions enabled switching between processive and distributive catalysis and influencing the sliding direction of this rotaxane-like catalyst.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: gp45
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1CZD
Notes: ---

A Designed Heme-[4Fe-4S] Metalloenzyme Catalyzes Sulfite Reduction like the Native Enzyme

Lu, Y.

Science, 2018, 10.1126/science.aat8474

Multielectron redox reactions often require multicofactor metalloenzymes to facilitate coupled electron and proton movement, but it is challenging to design artificial enzymes to catalyze these important reactions, owing to their structural and functional complexity. We report a designed heteronuclear heme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor in cytochrome c peroxidase as a structural and functional model of the enzyme sulfite reductase. The initial model exhibits spectroscopic and ligand-binding properties of the native enzyme, and sulfite reduction activity was improved—through rational tuning of the secondary sphere interactions around the [4Fe-4S] and the substrate-binding sites—to be close to that of the native enzyme. By offering insight into the requirements for a demanding six-electron, seven-proton reaction that has so far eluded synthetic catalysts, this study provides strategies for designing highly functional multicofactor artificial enzymes.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Cytochrome c peroxidase
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfite reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Designed heteronuclear heme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor in cytochrome c peroxidase

An Artificial Metalloenzyme with the Kinetics of Native Enzymes

Hartwig, J. F.

Science, 2016, 10.1126/science.aah4427

Natural enzymes contain highly evolved active sites that lead to fast rates and high selectivities. Although artificial metalloenzymes have been developed that catalyze abiological transformations with high stereoselectivity, the activities of these artificial enzymes are much lower than those of natural enzymes. Here, we report a reconstituted artificial metalloenzyme containing an iridium porphyrin that exhibits kinetic parameters similar to those of natural enzymes. In particular, variants of the P450 enzyme CYP119 containing iridium in place of iron catalyze insertions of carbenes into C–H bonds with up to 98% enantiomeric excess, 35,000 turnovers, and 2550 hours−1 turnover frequency. This activity leads to intramolecular carbene insertions into unactivated C–H bonds and intermolecular carbene insertions into C–H bonds. These results lift the restrictions on merging chemical catalysis and biocatalysis to create highly active, productive, and selective metalloenzymes for abiological reactions.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 582
ee: 98
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 35129
ee: 91
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Noncanonical Proximal Heme Ligand Affords an Efficient Peroxidase in a Globin Fold

Green, A. P.; Hilvert, D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2018, 10.1021/jacs.7b12621


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ~1650
ee: ---
PDB: 5OJ9
Notes: Oxidation of amplex red

Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes

Keinan, E.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1999, 10.1021/ja990314q


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody SN37.4
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 750
ee: 43
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Heme Enzymes for the Construction of Gold-Based Biomaterials

Lombardi, A.; Nastri, F.

Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2018, 10.3390/ijms19102896


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Immobilization of the ArM on gold surfaces via a lipoic acid anchor.

Artificial Peroxidase-Like Hemoproteins Based on Antibodies Constructed from a Specifically Designed Ortho-Carboxy Substituted Tetraarylporphyrin Hapten and Exhibiting a High Affinity for Iron-Porphyrins

Mahy, J.-P.

FEBS Lett., 1996, 10.1016/0014-5793(96)01006-X


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 13G10
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 105 M-1 * s-1

Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes

Hartwig, J. F.

ACS Cent. Sci., 2017, 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 10181
ee: 98
PDB: ---
Notes: Selectivity for cis product (cis/trans = 90:1)

Capture and Characterization of a Reactive Haem– Carbenoid Complex in an Artificial Metalloenzyme

Hilvert, D.

Nat. Catal., 2018, 10.1038/s41929-018-0105-6


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 1000
ee: 99
PDB: 6F17
Notes: Structure of the Mb*(NMH) haem-iron complex

Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 1000
ee: 99
PDB: 6G5B
Notes: Structure of the Mb*(NMH) haem-iron–carbenoid complex

Catalytic Reduction of NO to N2O by a Designed Heme Copper Center in Myoglobin: Implications for the Role of Metal Ions

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 10.1021/ja058822p


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 2400
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Chemoselective, Enzymatic C−H Bond Amination Catalyzed by a Cytochrome P450 Containing an Ir(Me)-PIX Cofactor

Hartwig, J. F.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 10.1021/jacs.6b11410


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 294
ee: 26
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 192
ee: 95
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Construction and In Vivo Assembly of a Catalytically Proficient and Hyperthermostable De Novo Enzyme

Anderson, J. L. R.

Nat. Commun., 2017, 10.1038/s41467-017-00541-4


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)

Coordination Chemistry of Iron(III)-Porphyrin-Antibody Complexes Influence on the Peroxidase Activity of the Axial Coordination of an Imidazole on the Iron Atom

Mahy, J.-P.

Eur. J. Biochem., 2002, 10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02670.x


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 13G10
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 15200 M-1 * s-1

Coordination Chemistry Studies and Peroxidase Activity of a New Artificial Metalloenzyme Built by the “Trojan Horse” Strategy

Mahy, J.-P.

J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 2010, 10.1016/j.molcata.2009.10.016


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 7A3
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: k1 = 574 M-1 * min-1

Crystal Structure of Two Anti-Porphyrin Antibodies with Peroxidase Activity

Golinelli-Pimpaneau, B.

Plos ONE, 2012, 10.1371/journal.pone.0051128


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 13G10
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Peroxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 4AMK
Notes: ---

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 14H7
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Peroxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 4AT6
Notes: ---

Defining the Role of Tyrosine and Rational Tuning of Oxidase Activity by Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Tyrosine Analogs

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 10.1021/ja5109936


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1200
ee: ---
PDB: 4FWX
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Enzyme stabilization via computationally guided protein stapling

Fasan, R.; Khare, S. D.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2017, 10.1073/pnas.1708907114


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 4740
ee: 99.2
PDB: ---
Notes: Stapling of protein via thioether bond formation between the noncanonical amino acid O-2-bromoethyl tyrosine and cysteine

Flavohemoglobin: A Semisynthetic Hydroxylase Acting in the Absence of Reductase

Kaiser, E. T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 10.1021/ja00236a062


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Hemoglobin
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Helichrome: Synthesis and Enzymatic Activity of a Designed Hemeprotein

Kaiser, E. T.; Sasaki, T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 10.1021/ja00183a065


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Artificial construct
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Only 60 amino acids

Hemoabzymes: Towards New Biocatalysts for Selective Oxidations

Mahy, J.-P.

J. Immunol. Methods, 2002, 10.1016/S0022-1759(02)00223-5


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 3A3
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 33000 M-1 * s-1

Hemozymes Peroxidase Activity Of Artificial Hemoproteins Constructed From the Streptomyces Lividans Xylanase A and Iron(III)-Carboxy-Substituted Porphyrins

Mahy, J.-P.

Bioconjug. Chem., 2008, 10.1021/bc700435a


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Xylanase A (XynA)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 1083 M-1 * s-1

Incorporation of Manganese Complexes into Xylanase: New Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Epoxidation

Mahy, J.-P.; Ricoux, R.

ChemBioChem, 2012, 10.1002/cbic.201100659


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Xylanase A (XynA)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Epoxidation
Max TON: 21
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Intramolecular C(sp3)-H Amination of Arylsulfonyl Azides with Engineered and Artificial Myoglobin-Based Catalysts

Fasan, R.

Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2014, 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.05.015


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 142
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Neocarzinostatin-Based Hybrid Biocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions

Mahy, J.-P.; Ricoux, R.

Dalton Trans., 2014, 10.1039/c4dt00151f


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 6
ee: 13
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

New Activities of a Catalytic Antibody with a Peroxidase Activity: Formation of Fe(II)–RNO Complexes and Stereoselective Oxidation of Sulfides

Mahy, J.-P.

Eur. J. Biochem., 2004, 10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04032.x


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 3A3
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 82
ee: 45
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Orthogonal Expression of an Artificial Metalloenzyme for Abiotic Catalysis

Brustad, E. M.

ChemBioChem, 2017, 10.1002/cbic.201700397


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome BM3h
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 339
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate, cis:trans = 29:71

Oxidation of Organic Molecules in Homogeneous Aqueous Solution Catalyzed by Hybrid Biocatalysts (Based on the Trojan Horse Strategy)

Mahy, J.-P.

Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 2010, 10.1016/j.tetasy.2010.03.050


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 7A3
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 9
ee: 10
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 7A3
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Epoxidation
Max TON: 105
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Imidazole as co-catalyst

Peroxidase Activity of an Antibody-Heme Complex

Schultz, P. G.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 10.1021/ja00181a065


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody7G12-A10-G1-A12
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 200-500
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Peroxidase Activity of Cationic Metalloporphyrin-Antibody Complexes

Harada, A.

Chem. - Eur. J., 2004, 10.1002/chem.200305692


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 12E11G
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---