A Cell-Penetrating Artificial Metalloenzyme Regulates a Gene Switch in a Designer Mammalian Cell
Nat. Commun. 2018, 9, 10.1038/s41467-018-04440-0
Complementing enzymes in their native environment with either homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts is challenging due to the sea of functionalities present within a cell. To supplement these efforts, artificial metalloenzymes are drawing attention as they combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes. Herein we show that such hybrid catalysts consisting of a metal cofactor, a cell-penetrating module, and a protein scaffold are taken up into HEK-293T cells where they catalyze the uncaging of a hormone. This bioorthogonal reaction causes the upregulation of a gene circuit, which in turn leads to the expression of a nanoluc-luciferase. Relying on the biotin–streptavidin technology, variation of the biotinylated ruthenium complex: the biotinylated cell-penetrating poly(disulfide) ratio can be combined with point mutations on streptavidin to optimize the catalytic uncaging of an allyl-carbamate-protected thyroid hormone triiodothyronine. These results demonstrate that artificial metalloenzymes offer highly modular tools to perform bioorthogonal catalysis in live HEK cells.
Max TON: 33ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: ---
E. coli Surface Display of Streptavidin for Directed Evolution of an Allylic Deallylase
Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 5383-5388, 10.1039/c8sc00484f
Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs hereafter) combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes and offer the potential to implement new-to-nature reactions in living organisms. Herein we present an E. coli surface display platform for streptavidin (Sav hereafter) relying on an Lpp-OmpA anchor. The system was used for the high throughput screening of a bioorthogonal CpRu-based artificial deallylase (ADAse) that uncages an allylcarbamate-protected aminocoumarin 1. Two rounds of directed evolution afforded the double mutant S112M–K121A that displayed a 36-fold increase in surface activity vs. cellular background and a 5.7-fold increased in vitro activity compared to the wild type enzyme. The crystal structure of the best ADAse reveals the importance of mutation S112M to stabilize the cofactor conformation inside the protein.
Max TON: 148ee: ---PDB: 6FH8Notes: ---
On-Cell Catalysis by Surface Engineering of Live Cells with an Artificial Metalloenzyme
Commun. Chem. 2018, 1, 10.1038/s42004-018-0087-y
Metal-catalyzed chemical transformations performed at the cellular level bear great potential for the manipulation of biological processes. The complexity of the cell renders the use of transition metal chemistry difficult in cellular systems. The delivery of the reactive catalyst and the control of its spatial localization remain challenging. Here we report the surface functionalization of the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a tailor-made artificial metalloenzyme for on-cell catalysis. The functionalized cells remain viable and are able to uncage a fluorogenic substrate on their surface. This work leverages cell surface engineering to provide live cells with new-to-nature reactivity. In addition, this operationally simple approach is not genetically encoded and thereby transient, which offers advantages with regard to temporal control, cell viability, and safety. Therefore, and as a feature, the movement of the functionalized cells can be directed by light (via phototaxis), allowing for the three-dimensional localization of catalysts by outside stimuli.
Max TON: 80ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: Catalysis on algae surface