6 publications

6 publications

Engineered Metal Regulation of Trypsin Specificity

Craik, C.S.

Biochemistry 1995, 34, 2172-2180, 10.1021/bi00007a010

Histidine substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin by creating metal binding sites for Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. The sites bridge the substrate and enzyme on the leaving-group side of the scissile bond. Application of simple steric and geometric criteria to a crystallographically derived enzyme- substrate model suggested that histidine specificity at the P2' position might be acheived by a tridentate site involving amino acid residues 143 and 151 of trypsin. Trypsin N143H/E151H hydrolyzes a P2'- His-containing peptide (AGPYAHSS) exclusively in the presence of nickel or zinc with a high level of catalytic efficiency. Since cleavage following the tyrosine residue is normally highly disfavored by trypsin, this result demonstrates that a metal cofactor can be used to modulate specificity in a designed fashion. The same geometric criteria applied in the primary SI binding pocket suggested that the single-site mutation D189H might effect metal-dependent His specificity in trypsin. However, kinetic and crystallographic analysis of this variant showed that the design was unsuccessful because His 189 rotates away from substrate causing a large perturbation in adjacent surface loops. This observation suggests that the reason specificity modification at the trypsin S1 site requires extensive mutagenesis is because the pocket cannot deform locally to accommodate alternate PI side chains. By taking advantage of the extended subsites, an alternate substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Going Beyond Structure: Nickel-Substituted Rubredoxin as a Mechanistic Model for the [NiFe] Hydrogenases

Shafaat, H.S.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 10250-10262, 10.1021/jacs.8b05194

Well-defined molecular systems for catalytic hydrogen production that are robust, easily generated, and active under mild aqueous conditions remain underdeveloped. Nickel-substituted rubredoxin (NiRd) is one such system, featuring a tetrathiolate coordination environment around the nickel center that is identical to the native [NiFe] hydrogenases and demonstrating hydrogenase-like proton reduction activity. However, until now, the catalytic mechanism has remained elusive. In this work, we have combined quantitative protein film electrochemistry with optical and vibrational spectroscopy, density functional theory calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations to interrogate the mechanism of H2 evolution by NiRd. Proton-coupled electron transfer is found to be essential for catalysis. The coordinating thiolate ligands serve as the sites of protonation, a role that remains debated in the native [NiFe] hydrogenases, with reduction occurring at the nickel center following protonation. The rate-determining step is suggested to be intramolecular proton transfer via thiol inversion to generate a NiIII–hydride species. NiRd catalysis is found to be completely insensitive to the presence of oxygen, another advantage over the native [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes, with potential implications for membrane-less fuel cells and aerobic hydrogen evolution. Targeted mutations around the metal center are seen to increase the activity and perturb the rate-determining process, highlighting the importance of the outer coordination sphere. Collectively, these results indicate that NiRd evolves H2 through a mechanism similar to that of the [NiFe] hydrogenases, suggesting a role for thiolate protonation in the native enzyme and guiding rational optimization of the NiRd system.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Rubredoxin (Rd)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 149 s-1

Metal Incorporated Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) Catalyzed Oxidation of Resveratrol: Selective Dimerization or Decomposition

Pan, Y.

RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 22976, 10.1039/c3ra43784a

Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially available and prevalently used peroxidase with no specific substrate binding domain. However, after being incorporated with different metal cations, new catalytic functions were found in biomimetic oxidation of resveratrol. Based on the results of screening, Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn incorporated enzymes showed distinctive effects, either decomposition or dimerization products were observed.


Metal: Ca; Co; Mn; Ni; Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of resveratrol. Dimerisation product obtained.

Nickel-Substituted Rubredoxin as a Minimal Enzyme Model for Hydrogenase

Shafaat, H.S.

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 3731-3736, 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01750

A simple, functional mimic of [NiFe] hydrogenases based on a nickel-substituted rubredoxin (NiRd) protein is reported. NiRd is capable of light-initiated and solution-phase hydrogen production and demonstrates high electrocatalytic activity using protein film voltammetry. The catalytic voltammograms are modeled using analytical expressions developed for hydrogenase enzymes, revealing maximum turnover frequencies of approximately 20–100 s–1 at 4 °C with an overpotential of 540 mV. These rates are directly comparable to those observed for [NiFe] hydrogenases under similar conditions. Like the native enzymes, the proton reduction activity of NiRd is strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide. This engineered rubredoxin-based enzyme is chemically and thermally robust, easily accessible, and highly tunable. These results have implications for understanding the enzymatic mechanisms of native hydrogenases, and, using NiRd as a scaffold, it will be possible to optimize this catalyst for application in sustainable fuel generation.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Tetrathiolate
Host protein: Rubredoxin (Rd)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 300
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Protein Delivery of a Ni Catalyst to Photosystem I for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production

Tiede, D.M.; Utschig, L.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 13246-13249, 10.1021/ja405277g

The direct conversion of sunlight into fuel is a promising means for the production of storable renewable energy. Herein, we use Nature’s specialized photosynthetic machinery found in the Photosystem I (PSI) protein to drive solar fuel production from a nickel diphosphine molecular catalyst. Upon exposure to visible light, a self-assembled PSI-[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 hybrid generates H2 at a rate 2 orders of magnitude greater than rates reported for photosensitizer/[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 systems. The protein environment enables photocatalysis at pH 6.3 in completely aqueous conditions. In addition, we have developed a strategy for incorporating the Ni molecular catalyst with the native acceptor protein of PSI, flavodoxin. Photocatalysis experiments with this modified flavodoxin demonstrate a new mechanism for biohybrid creation that involves protein-directed delivery of a molecular catalyst to the reducing side of Photosystem I for light-driven catalysis. This work further establishes strategies for constructing functional, inexpensive, earth-abundant solar fuel-producing PSI hybrids that use light to rapidly produce hydrogen directly from water.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Flavodoxin (Fld)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 94
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Photosystem I (PSI)
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 1870
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Robust and Versatile Hos Protein for the Design and Evaluation of Artificial Metal Centers

Arold, S.T.; Eppinger, J.; Groll, M.

ACS Catal. 2019, 9, 11371-11380, 10.1021/acscatal.9b02896

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) have high potential in biotechnological applications as they combine the versatility of transition-metal catalysis with the substrate selectivity of enzymes. An ideal host protein should allow high-yield recombinant expression, display thermal and solvent stability to withstand harsh reaction conditions, lack nonspecific metal-binding residues, and contain a suitable cavity to accommodate the artificial metal site. Moreover, to allow its rational functionalization, the host should provide an intrinsic reporter for metal binding and structural changes, which should be readily amendable to high-resolution structural characterization. Herein, we present the design, characterization, and de novo functionalization of a fluorescent ArM scaffold, named mTFP*, that achieves these characteristics. Fluorescence measurements allowed direct assessment of the scaffold’s structural integrity. Protein X-ray structures and transition metal Förster resonance energy transfer (tmFRET) studies validated the engineered metal coordination sites and provided insights into metal binding dynamics at the atomic level. The implemented active metal centers resulted in ArMs with efficient Diels–Alderase and Friedel–Crafts alkylase activities.


Metal: Cu; Ni; Pd; Rh
Ligand type: ---
Host protein: Monomeric Teal FP (mTFP)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Also Friedel–Crafts alkylation