Hydrolytic Catalysis and Structural Stabilization in a Designed Metalloprotein
Metal ions are an important part of many natural proteins, providing structural, catalytic and electron transfer functions. Reproducing these functions in a designed protein is the ultimate challenge to our understanding of them. Here, we present an artificial metallohydrolase, which has been shown by X-ray crystallography to contain two different metal ions—a Zn(II) ion, which is important for catalytic activity, and a Hg(II) ion, which provides structural stability. This metallohydrolase displays catalytic activity that compares well with several characteristic reactions of natural enzymes. It catalyses p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) hydrolysis with an efficiency only ~100-fold less than that of human carbonic anhydrase (CA)II and at least 550-fold better than comparable synthetic complexes. Similarly, CO2 hydration occurs with an efficiency within ~500-fold of CAII. Although histidine residues in the absence of Zn(II) exhibit pNPA hydrolysis, miniscule apopeptide activity is observed for CO2 hydration. The kinetic and structural analysis of this first de novo designed hydrolytic metalloenzyme reveals necessary design features for future metalloenzymes containing one or more metals.
Notes: Zn ion for catalytic activity, Hg ion for structural stability of the ArM. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.
Notes: Zn ion for catalytic activity, Hg ion for structural stability of the ArM, kcat/KM ≈ 1.8*105 M-1*s-1. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.
Influence of Active Site Location on Catalytic Activity in De Novo-Designed Zinc Metalloenzymes
While metalloprotein design has now yielded a number of successful metal-bound and even catalytically active constructs, the question of where to put a metal site along a linear, repetitive sequence has not been thoroughly addressed. Often several possibilities in a given sequence may exist that would appear equivalent but may in fact differ for metal affinity, substrate access, or protein dynamics. We present a systematic variation of active site location for a hydrolytically active ZnHis3O site contained within a de novo-designed three-stranded coiled coil. We find that the maximal rate, substrate access, and metal-binding affinity are dependent on the selected position, while catalytic efficiency for p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis can be retained regardless of the location of the active site. This achievement demonstrates how efficient, tailor-made enzymes which control rate, pKa, substrate and solvent access (and selectivity), and metal-binding affinity may be realized. These findings may be applied to the more advanced de novo design of constructs containing secondary interactions, such as hydrogen-bonding channels. We are now confident that changes to location for accommodating such channels can be achieved without location-dependent loss of catalytic efficiency. These findings bring us closer to our ultimate goal of incorporating the secondary interactions we believe will be necessary in order to improve both active site properties and the catalytic efficiency to be competitive with the native enzyme, carbonic anhydrase.
Notes: Influence of position of Zn and Hg ion on catalytic activity of the ArM tested. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.