Computational Redesign of a Mononuclear Zinc Metalloenzyme for Organophosphate Hydrolysis
Nat. Chem. Biol. 2012, 8, 294-300, 10.1038/NChemBio.777
The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze noncognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of metalloenzyme active site functional groups to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing mouse adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of ∼104 M−1 s−1 after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation. The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of the RP isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and it shows marked substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers a general approach for exploring their untapped catalytic potential for new reactivities.
Metal: ZnLigand type: Amino acidHost protein: Mouse adenosine deaminaseAnchoring strategy: DativeOptimization: GeneticReaction: Hydrolytic cleavageMax TON: >140ee: ---PDB: 3T1GNotes: kcat/KM ≈ 104 M-1*s-1
Improving the Catalytic Performance of an Artificial Metalloenzyme by Computational Design
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 10414-10419, 10.1021/jacs.5b06622
Artifical metalloenzymes combine the reactivity of small molecule catalysts with the selectivity of enzymes, and new methods are required to tune the catalytic properties of these systems for an application of interest. Structure-based computational design could help to identify amino acid mutations leading to improved catalytic activity and enantioselectivity. Here we describe the application of Rosetta Design for the genetic optimization of an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase hereafter), [(η5-Cp*)Ir(pico)Cl] ⊂ WT hCA II (Cp* = Me5C5–), for the asymmetric reduction of a cyclic imine, the precursor of salsolsidine. Based on a crystal structure of the ATHase, computational design afforded four hCAII variants with protein backbone-stabilizing and hydrophobic cofactor-embedding mutations. In dansylamide-competition assays, these designs showed 46–64-fold improved affinity for the iridium pianostool complex [(η5-Cp*)Ir(pico)Cl]. Gratifyingly, the new designs yielded a significant improvement in both activity and enantioselectivity (from 70% ee (WT hCA II) to up to 92% ee and a 4-fold increase in total turnover number) for the production of (S)-salsolidine. Introducing additional hydrophobicity in the Cp*-moiety of the Ir-catalyst provided by adding a propyl substituent on the Cp* moiety yields the most (S)-selective (96% ee) ATHase reported to date. X-ray structural data indicate that the high enantioselectivity results from embedding the piano stool moiety within the protein, consistent with the computational model.
Metal: IrLigand type: Cp*; Pyridine sulfonamideHost protein: Human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII)Anchoring strategy: SupramolecularOptimization: GeneticReaction: Transfer hydrogenationMax TON: 100ee: 96PDB: ---Notes: ---