18 publications

18 publications

A Designed Functional Metalloenzyme that Reduces O2 to H2O with Over One Thousand Turnovers

Lu, Y.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 5589-5592, 10.1002/anie.201201981

Rational design of functional enzymes with a high number of turnovers is a challenge, especially those with a complex active site, such as respiratory oxidases. Introducing two His and one Tyr residues into myoglobin resulted in enzymes that reduce O2 to H2O with more than 1000 turnovers (red line, see scheme) and minimal release of reactive oxygen species. The positioning of the Tyr residue is critical for activity.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1056
ee: ---
PDB: 4FWX
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

A Designed Heme-[4Fe-4S] Metalloenzyme Catalyzes Sulfite Reduction like the Native Enzyme

Lu, Y.

Science 2018, 361, 1098-1101, 10.1126/science.aat8474

Multielectron redox reactions often require multicofactor metalloenzymes to facilitate coupled electron and proton movement, but it is challenging to design artificial enzymes to catalyze these important reactions, owing to their structural and functional complexity. We report a designed heteronuclear heme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor in cytochrome c peroxidase as a structural and functional model of the enzyme sulfite reductase. The initial model exhibits spectroscopic and ligand-binding properties of the native enzyme, and sulfite reduction activity was improved—through rational tuning of the secondary sphere interactions around the [4Fe-4S] and the substrate-binding sites—to be close to that of the native enzyme. By offering insight into the requirements for a demanding six-electron, seven-proton reaction that has so far eluded synthetic catalysts, this study provides strategies for designing highly functional multicofactor artificial enzymes.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Cytochrome c peroxidase
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfite reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Designed heteronuclear heme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor in cytochrome c peroxidase

A Designed Metalloenzyme Achieving the Catalytic Rate of a Native Enzyme

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 11570-11573, 10.1021/jacs.5b07119

Terminal oxidases catalyze four-electron reduction of oxygen to water, and the energy harvested is utilized to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. While much effort has been made to design a catalyst mimicking the function of terminal oxidases, most biomimetic catalysts have much lower activity than native oxidases. Herein we report a designed oxidase in myoglobin with an O2 reduction rate (52 s–1) comparable to that of a native cytochrome (cyt) cbb3 oxidase (50 s–1) under identical conditions. We achieved this goal by engineering more favorable electrostatic interactions between a functional oxidase model designed in sperm whale myoglobin and its native redox partner, cyt b5, resulting in a 400-fold electron transfer (ET) rate enhancement. Achieving high activity equivalent to that of native enzymes in a designed metalloenzyme offers deeper insight into the roles of tunable processes such as ET in oxidase activity and enzymatic function and may extend into applications such as more efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for biofuel cells.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: O2 reduction rates of 52 s-1 were achieved in combination with the native redox partner cyt b5.

A Site-Selective Dual Anchoring Strategy for Artificial Metalloprotein Design

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 10812-10813, 10.1021/ja046908x

Introducing nonnative metal ions or metal-containing prosthetic groups into a protein can dramatically expand the repertoire of its functionalities and thus its range of applications. Particularly challenging is the control of substrate-binding and thus reaction selectivity such as enantioselectivity. To meet this challenge, both non-covalent and single-point attachments of metal complexes have been demonstrated previously. Since the protein template did not evolve to bind artificial metal complexes tightly in a single conformation, efforts to restrict conformational freedom by modifying the metal complexes and/or the protein are required to achieve high enantioselectivity using the above two strategies. Here we report a novel site-selective dual anchoring (two-point covalent attachment) strategy to introduce an achiral manganese salen complex (Mn(salen)), into apo sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) with bioconjugation yield close to 100%. The enantioselective excess increases from 0.3% for non-covalent, to 12.3% for single point, and to 51.3% for dual anchoring attachments. The dual anchoring method has the advantage of restricting the conformational freedom of the metal complex in the protein and can be generally applied to protein incorporation of other metal complexes with minimal structural modification to either the metal complex or the protein.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 3.9
ee: 51
PDB: 1MBO
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Catalytic Reduction of NO to N2O by a Designed Heme Copper Center in Myoglobin: Implications for the Role of Metal Ions

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6766-6767, 10.1021/ja058822p

The effects of metal ions on the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) with a designed heme copper center in myoglobin (F43H/L29H sperm whale Mb, CuBMb) were investigated under reducing anaerobic conditions using UV−vis and EPR spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS. In the presence of Cu(I), catalytic reduction of NO to N2O by CuBMb was observed with turnover number of 2 mol NO·mol CuBMb-1·min-1, close to 3 mol NO·mol enzyme-1·min-1 reported for the ba3 oxidases from T. thermophilus. Formation of a His-heme-NO species was detected by UV−vis and EPR spectroscopy. In comparison to the EPR spectra of ferrous-CuBMb-NO in the absence of metal ions, the EPR spectra of ferrous-CuBMb-NO in the presence of Cu(I) showed less-resolved hyperfine splitting from the proximal histidine, probably due to weakening of the proximal His-heme bond. In the presence of Zn(II), formation of a five-coordinate ferrous-CuBMb-NO species, resulting from cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, was shown by UV−vis and EPR spectroscopic studies. The reduction of NO to N2O was not observed in the presence of Zn(II). Control experiments using wild-type myoglobin indicated no reduction of NO in the presence of either Cu(I) or Zn(II). These results suggest that both the identity and the oxidation state of the metal ion in the CuB center are important for NO reduction. A redox-active metal ion is required to deliver electrons, and a higher oxidation state is preferred to weaken the heme iron−proximal histidine toward a five-coordinate key intermediate in NO reduction.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 2400
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Defining the Role of Tyrosine and Rational Tuning of Oxidase Activity by Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Tyrosine Analogs

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 4594-4597, 10.1021/ja5109936

While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pKa and reduction potential in O2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1200
ee: ---
PDB: 4FWX
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Design and Engineering of Artificial Oxygen-Activating Metalloenzymes

Review

Lombardi, A.; Lu, Y.

Chem. Soc. Rev. 2016, 45, 5020-5054, 10.1039/C5CS00923E

Many efforts are being made in the design and engineering of metalloenzymes with catalytic properties fulfilling the needs of practical applications. Progress in this field has recently been accelerated by advances in computational, molecular and structural biology. This review article focuses on the recent examples of oxygen-activating metalloenzymes, developed through the strategies of de novo design, miniaturization processes and protein redesign. Considerable progress in these diverse design approaches has produced many metal-containing biocatalysts able to adopt the functions of native enzymes or even novel functions beyond those found in Nature.


Notes: ---

Design of Functional Metalloproteins

Review

Lu, Y.

Nature 2009, 460, 855-862, 10.1038/nature08304

Metalloproteins catalyse some of the most complex and important processes in nature, such as photosynthesis and water oxidation. An ultimate test of our knowledge of how metalloproteins work is to design new metalloproteins. Doing so not only can reveal hidden structural features that may be missing from studies of native metalloproteins and their variants, but also can result in new metalloenzymes for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. Although it is much more challenging to design metalloproteins than non-metalloproteins, much progress has been made in this area, particularly in functional design, owing to recent advances in areas such as computational and structural biology.


Notes: ---

Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 9970-9972, 10.1021/ja103516n

A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called FeBMb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 Å) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN−-FeBMb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The FeBMb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-FeBMb(-His) and Fe(II)-FeBMb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N2O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-FeBMb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-FeBMb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 320
ee: ---
PDB: 3MN0
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Metalloenzyme Design and Engineering through Strategic Modifications of Native Protein Scaffolds

Review

Lu, Y.

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2014, 19, 67-75, 10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.01.006

Metalloenzymes are among the major targets of protein design and engineering efforts aimed at attaining novel and efficient catalysis for biochemical transformation and biomedical applications, due to the diversity of functions imparted by the metallo-cofactors along with the versatility of the protein environment. Naturally evolved protein scaffolds can often serve as robust foundations for sustaining artificial active sites constructed by rational design, directed evolution, or a combination of the two strategies. Accumulated knowledge of structure–function relationship and advancement of tools such as computational algorithms and unnatural amino acids incorporation all contribute to the design of better metalloenzymes with catalytic properties approaching the needs of practical applications.


Notes: ---

Noncovalent Modulation of pH-Dependent Reactivity of a Mn–Salen Cofactor in Myoglobin with Hydrogen Peroxide

Lu, Y.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2009, 15, 7481-7489, 10.1002/chem.200802449

To demonstrate protein modulation of metal‐cofactor reactivity through noncovalent interactions, pH‐dependent sulfoxidation and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid) (ABTS) oxidation reactivity of a designed myoglobin (Mb) containing non‐native Mn–salen complex (1) was investigated using H2O2 as the oxidant. Incorporation of 1 inside the Mb resulted in an increase in the turnover numbers through exclusion of water from the metal complex and prevention of Mn–salen dimer formation. Interestingly, the presence of protein in itself is not enough to confer the increase activity as mutation of the distal His64 in Mb to Phe to remove hydrogen‐bonding interactions resulted in no increase in the turnover numbers, while mutation His64 to Arg, another residue with ability to hydrogen‐bond interactions, resulted in an increase in reactivity. These results strongly suggest that the distal ligand His64, through its hydrogen‐bonding interaction, plays important roles in enhancing and fine‐tuning reactivity of the Mn–salen complex. Nonlinear least‐squares fitting of rate versus pH plots demonstrates that 1⋅Mb(H64X) (X=H, R and F) and the control Mn–salen 1 exhibit pKa values varying from pH 6.4 to 8.3, and that the lower pKa of the distal ligand in 1⋅Mb(H64X), the higher the reactivity it achieves. Moreover, in addition to the pKa at high pH, 1⋅Mb displays another pKa at low pH, with pKa of 5.0±0.08. A comparison of the effect of different pH on sulfoxidation and ABTS oxidation indicates that, while the intermediate produced at low pH conditions could only perform sulfoxidation, the intermediate at high pH could oxidize both sulfoxides and ABTS. Such a fine‐control of reactivity through hydrogen‐bonding interactions by the distal ligand to bind, orient and activate H2O2 is very important for designing artificial enzymes with dramatic different and tunable reactivity from catalysts without protein scaffolds.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 4.1
ee: 50
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Protein Scaffold of a Designed Metalloenzyme Enhances the Chemoselectivity in Sulfoxidation of Thioanisole

Lu, Y.

Chem. Commun. 2008, 1665, 10.1039/b718915j

We demonstrate that incorporation of MnSalen into a protein scaffold enhances the chemoselectivity in sulfoxidation of thioanisole and find that both the polarity and hydrogen bonding of the protein scaffold play an important role in tuning the chemoselectivity.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 5.2
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Rational Design of a Structural and Functional Nitric Oxide Reductase

Lu, Y.

Nature 2009, 462, 1079-1082, 10.1038/nature08620

Protein design provides a rigorous test of our knowledge about proteins and allows the creation of novel enzymes for biotechnological applications. Whereas progress has been made in designing proteins that mimic native proteins structurally1,2,3, it is more difficult to design functional proteins4,5,6,7,8. In comparison to recent successes in designing non-metalloproteins4,6,7,9,10, it is even more challenging to rationally design metalloproteins that reproduce both the structure and function of native metalloenzymes5,8,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20. This is because protein metal-binding sites are much more varied than non-metal-containing sites, in terms of different metal ion oxidation states, preferred geometry and metal ion ligand donor sets. Because of their variability, it has been difficult to predict metal-binding site properties in silico, as many of the parameters, such as force fields, are ill-defined. Therefore, the successful design of a structural and functional metalloprotein would greatly advance the field of protein design and our understanding of enzymes. Here we report a successful, rational design of a structural and functional model of a metalloprotein, nitric oxide reductase (NOR), by introducing three histidines and one glutamate, predicted as ligands in the active site of NOR, into the distal pocket of myoglobin. A crystal structure of the designed protein confirms that the minimized computer model contains a haem/non-haem FeB centre that is remarkably similar to that in the crystal structure. This designed protein also exhibits NO reduction activity, and so models both the structure and function of NOR, offering insight that the active site glutamate is required for both iron binding and activity. These results show that structural and functional metalloproteins can be rationally designed in silico.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: NO reduction
Max TON: ~5
ee: ---
PDB: 3K9Z
Notes: Design of a catalytically active non-haem iron-binding site (FeB) in sperm whale myoglobin.

Roles of Glutamates and Metal Ions in a Rationally Designed Nitric Oxide Reductase Based on Myoglobin

Lu, Y.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2010, 107, 8581-8586, 10.1073/pnas.1000526107

A structural and functional model of bacterial nitric oxide reductase (NOR) has been designed by introducing two glutamates (Glu) and three histidines (His) in sperm whale myoglobin. X-ray structural data indicate that the three His and one Glu (V68E) residues bind iron, mimicking the putative FeB site in NOR, while the second Glu (I107E) interacts with a water molecule and forms a hydrogen bonding network in the designed protein. Unlike the first Glu (V68E), which lowered the heme reduction potential by ∼110 mV, the second Glu has little effect on the heme potential, suggesting that the negatively charged Glu has a different role in redox tuning. More importantly, introducing the second Glu resulted in a ∼100% increase in NOR activity, suggesting the importance of a hydrogen bonding network in facilitating proton delivery during NOR reactivity. In addition, EPR and X-ray structural studies indicate that the designed protein binds iron, copper, or zinc in the FeB site, each with different effects on the structures and NOR activities, suggesting that both redox activity and an intermediate five-coordinate heme-NO species are important for high NOR activity. The designed protein offers an excellent model for NOR and demonstrates the power of using designed proteins as a simpler and more well-defined system to address important chemical and biological issues.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: NO reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3M39
Notes: X-ray structure of mutant I107E.

Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: NO reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3M3A
Notes: X-ray structure of mutant I107E.

Significant Improvement of Oxidase Activity Through the Genetic Incorporation of a Redox-Active Unnatural Amino Acid

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

Chem. Sci. 2015, 6, 3881-3885, 10.1039/C5SC01126D

While nature employs various covalent and non-covalent strategies to modulate tyrosine (Y) redox potential and pKa in order to optimize enzyme activities, such approaches have not been systematically applied for the design of functional metalloproteins. Through the genetic incorporation of 3-methoxytyrosine (OMeY) into myoglobin, we replicated important features of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) in this small soluble protein, which exhibits selective O2 reduction activity while generating a small amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results demonstrate that the electron donating ability of a tyrosine residue in the active site is important for CcO function. Moreover, we elucidated the structural basis for the genetic incorporation of OMeY into proteins by solving the X-ray structure of OMeY specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with OMeY.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: >1100
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Reduction potential was lowered by incorporation of the unnatural amino acid 3-methoxy tyrosine.

Significant Increase of Oxidase Activity through the Genetic Incorporation of a Tyrosine–Histidine Cross-Link in a Myoglobin Model of Heme–Copper Oxidase

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 4312-4316, 10.1002/anie.201108756

Top model: Heme–copper oxidase (HCO) contains a histidine–tyrosine cross‐link in its heme a3/CuB oxygen reduction center. A functional model of HCO was obtained through the genetic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid imiTyr, which mimics the Tyr–His cross‐link, and of the CuB site into myoglobin (see picture). Like HCO, this small soluble protein exhibits selective O2‐reduction activity while generating little reactive oxygen species.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1100
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Systematic Tuning of Heme Redox Potentials and Its Effects on O2 Reduction Rates in a Designed Oxidase in Myoglobin

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 11882-11885, 10.1021/ja5054863

Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) is known to catalyze the reduction of O2 to H2O efficiently with a much lower overpotential than most other O2 reduction catalysts. However, methods by which the enzyme fine-tunes the reduction potential (E°) of its active site and the corresponding influence on the O2 reduction activity are not well understood. In this work, we report systematic tuning of the heme E° in a functional model of CcO in myoglobin containing three histidines and one tyrosine in the distal pocket of heme. By removing hydrogen-bonding interactions between Ser92 and the proximal His ligand and a heme propionate, and increasing hydrophobicity of the heme pocket through Ser92Ala mutation, we have increased the heme E° from 95 ± 2 to 123 ± 3 mV. Additionally, replacing the native heme b in the CcO mimic with heme a analogs, diacetyl, monoformyl, and diformyl hemes, that posses electron-withdrawing groups, resulted in higher E° values of 175 ± 5, 210 ± 6, and 320 ± 10 mV, respectively. Furthermore, O2 consumption studies on these CcO mimics revealed a strong enhancement in O2 reduction rates with increasing heme E°. Such methods of tuning the heme E° through a combination of secondary sphere mutations and heme substitutions can be applied to tune E° of other heme proteins, allowing for comprehensive investigations of the relationship between E° and enzymatic activity.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1600
ee: ---
PDB: 4FWX
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

The Important Role of Covalent Anchor Positions in Tuning Catalytic Properties of a Rationally Designed MnSalen-Containing Metalloenzyme

Lu, Y.; Zhang, J.-L.

ACS Catal. 2011, 1, 1083-1089, 10.1021/cs200258e

Two questions important to the success in metalloenzyme design are how to attach or anchor metal cofactors inside protein scaffolds and in what way such positioning affects enzymatic properties. We have previously reported a dual anchoring method to position a nonnative cofactor, MnSalen (1), inside the heme cavity of apo sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) and showed that the dual anchoring can increase both the activity and enantioselectivity over single anchoring methods, making this artificial enzyme an ideal system to address the above questions. Here, we report systematic investigations of the effect of different covalent attachment or anchoring positions on reactivity and selectivity of sulfoxidation by the MnSalen-containing Mb enzymes. We have found that changing the left anchor from Y103C to T39C has an almost identical effect of increasing rate by 1.8-fold and increasing selectivity by +15% for S, whether the right anchor is L72C or S108C. At the same time, regardless of the identity of the left anchor, changing the right anchor from S108C to L72C increases the rate by 4-fold and selectivity by +66%. The right anchor site was observed to have a greater influence than the left anchor site on the reactivity and selectivity in sulfoxidation of a wide scope of other ortho-, meta- and para-substituted substrates. The 1·Mb(T39C/L72C) showed the highest reactivity (TON up to 2.32 min–1) and selectivity (ee % up to 83%) among the different anchoring positions examined. Molecular dynamic simulations indicate that these changes in reactivity and selectivity may be due to the steric effects of the linker arms inside the protein cavity. These results indicate that small differences in the anchor positions can result in significant changes in reactivity and enantioselectivity, probably through steric interactions with substrates when they enter the substrate-binding pocket, and that the effects of right and left anchor positions are independent and additive in nature. The finding that the anchoring arms can influence both the positioning of the cofactor and steric control of substrate entrance will help design better functional metalloenzymes with predicted catalytic activity and selectivity.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: 83
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction rate: 2.3 min-1