The Rational Design of Semisynthetic Peroxidases
A semisynthetic peroxidase was designed by exploiting the structural similarity of the active sites of vanadium dependent haloperoxidases and acid phosphatases. Incorporation of vanadate ion into the active site of phytase (E.C. 220.127.116.11), which mediates in vivo the hydrolysis of phosphate esters, leads to the formation of a semisynthetic peroxidase, which catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides with H2O2 affording the S‐sulfoxide, e.g. in 66% ee at 100% conversion for thioanisole. Under reaction conditions the semi‐synthetic vanadium peroxidase is stable for over 3 days with only a slight decrease in turnover frequency. Polar water‐miscible cosolvents, such as methanol, dioxane, and dimethoxyethane, can be used in concentrations of 30% (v/v) at a small penalty in activity and enantioselectivity. Among the transition metal oxoanions that are known to be potent inhibitors, only vanadate resulted in a semisynthetic peroxidase when incorporated into phytase. A number of other acid phosphatases and hydrolases were tested for peroxidase activity, when incorporated with vanadate ion. Phytases from Aspergillus ficuum, A. fumigatus, and A. nidulans, sulfatase from Helix pomatia, and phospholipase D from cabbage catalyzed enantioselective oxygen transfer reactions when incorporated with vanadium. However, phytase from A. ficuum was unique in also catalyzing the enantioselective sulfoxidation, albeit at a lower rate, in the absence of vanadate ion.