An Artificial Metalloenzyme with the Kinetics of Native Enzymes
Science 2016, 354, 102-106, 10.1126/science.aah4427
Natural enzymes contain highly evolved active sites that lead to fast rates and high selectivities. Although artificial metalloenzymes have been developed that catalyze abiological transformations with high stereoselectivity, the activities of these artificial enzymes are much lower than those of natural enzymes. Here, we report a reconstituted artificial metalloenzyme containing an iridium porphyrin that exhibits kinetic parameters similar to those of natural enzymes. In particular, variants of the P450 enzyme CYP119 containing iridium in place of iron catalyze insertions of carbenes into C–H bonds with up to 98% enantiomeric excess, 35,000 turnovers, and 2550 hours−1 turnover frequency. This activity leads to intramolecular carbene insertions into unactivated C–H bonds and intermolecular carbene insertions into C–H bonds. These results lift the restrictions on merging chemical catalysis and biocatalysis to create highly active, productive, and selective metalloenzymes for abiological reactions.
Max TON: 582ee: 98PDB: ---Notes: ---
Max TON: 35129ee: 91PDB: ---Notes: ---
Beyond Iron: Iridium-Containing P450 Enzymes for Selective Cyclopropanations of Structurally Diverse Alkenes
ACS Cent. Sci. 2017, 3, 302-308, 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00391
Enzymes catalyze organic transformations with exquisite levels of selectivity, including chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate selectivity, but the types of reactions catalyzed by enzymes are more limited than those of chemical catalysts. Thus, the convergence of chemical catalysis and biocatalysis can enable enzymatic systems to catalyze abiological reactions with high selectivity. Recently, we disclosed artificial enzymes constructed from the apo form of heme proteins and iridium porphyrins that catalyze the insertion of carbenes into a C–H bond. We postulated that the same type of Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes could catalyze the cyclopropanation of a broad range of alkenes with control of multiple modes of selectivity. Here, we report the evolution of artificial enzymes that are highly active and highly stereoselective for the addition of carbenes to a wide range of alkenes. These enzymes catalyze the cyclopropanation of terminal and internal, activated and unactivated, electron-rich and electron-deficient, conjugated and nonconjugated alkenes. In particular, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes derived from CYP119 catalyze highly enantio- and diastereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ±98% ee, >70:1 dr, >75% yield, and ∼10,000 turnovers (TON), as well as 1,2-disubstituted styrenes with up to 99% ee, 35:1 dr, and 54% yield. Moreover, Ir(Me)-PIX enzymes catalyze cyclopropanation of internal, unactivated alkenes with up to 99% stereoselectivity, 76% yield, and 1300 TON. They also catalyze cyclopropanation of natural products with diastereoselectivities that are complementary to those attained with standard transition metal catalysts. Finally, Ir(Me)-PIX P450 variants react with substrate selectivity that is reminiscent of natural enzymes; they react preferentially with less reactive internal alkenes in the presence of more reactive terminal alkenes. Together, the studies reveal the suitability of Ir-containing P450s to combine the broad reactivity and substrate scope of transition metal catalysts with the exquisite selectivity of enzymes, generating catalysts that enable reactions to occur with levels and modes of activity and selectivity previously unattainable with natural enzymes or transition metal complexes alone.
Reaction: CyclopropanationMax TON: 10181ee: 98PDB: ---Notes: Selectivity for cis product (cis/trans = 90:1)
Chemoselective, Enzymatic C−H Bond Amination Catalyzed by a Cytochrome P450 Containing an Ir(Me)-PIX Cofactor
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 1750-1753, 10.1021/jacs.6b11410
Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been engineered to catalyze abiological C–H bond amination reactions, but the yields of these reactions have been limited by low chemoselectivity for the amination of C–H bonds over competing reduction of the azide substrate to a sulfonamide. Here we report that P450s derived from a thermophilic organism and containing an iridium porphyrin cofactor (Ir(Me)-PIX) in place of the heme catalyze enantioselective intramolecular C−H bond amination reactions of sulfonyl azides. These reactions occur with chemoselectivity for insertion of the nitrene units into C−H bonds over reduction of the azides to the sulfonamides that is higher and with substrate scope that is broader than those of enzymes containing iron porphyrins. The products from C−H amination are formed in up to 98% yield and ∼300 TON. In one case, the enantiomeric excess reaches 95:5 er, and the reactions can occur with divergent site selectivity. The chemoselectivity for C–H bond amination is greater than 20:1 in all cases. Variants of the Ir(Me)-PIX CYP119 displaying these properties were identified rapidly by evaluating CYP119 mutants containing Ir(Me)-PIX in cell lysates, rather than as purified enzymes. This study sets the stage to discover suitable enzymes to catalyze challenging C–H amination reactions.
Max TON: 294ee: 26PDB: ---Notes: ---
Max TON: 192ee: 95PDB: ---Notes: ---
Site‐Selective Functionalization of (sp3)C-H Bonds Catalyzed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Containing an Iridium‐Porphyrin Cofactor
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, 58, 13954-13960, 10.1002/anie.201907460
The selective functionalization of one C-H bond over others in nearly identical steric and electronic environments can facilitate the construction of complex molecules. We report site-selective functionalizations of C-H bonds, differentiated solely by remote substituents, catalyzed by artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) that are generated from the combination of an evolvable P450 scaffold and an iridium-porphyrin cofactor. The generated systems catalyze the insertion of carbenes into the C-H bonds of arange of phthalan derivatives containing substituents that render the two methylene positions in each phthalan inequivalent. These reactions occur with site-selectivity ratios of up to 17.8:1 and, in most cases, with pairs of enzyme mutants that preferentially form each of the two constitutional isomers. This study demonstrates the potential of abiotic reactions catalyzed by metalloenzymes to functionalize C-H bonds with site selectivity that is difficult to achieve with small-molecule catalysts.
Ligand type: PorphyrinAnchoring strategy: ReconstitutionOptimization: GeneticReaction: C-H functionalizationMax TON: 2286ee: 94PDB: ---Notes: ---