Controlled Ligand Exchange Between Ruthenium Organometallic Cofactor Precursors and a Naïve Protein Scaffold Generates Artificial Metalloenzymes Catalysing Transfer Hydrogenation
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2021, 60, 10919-10927, 10.1002/anie.202015834
Many natural metalloenzymes assemble from proteins and biosynthesised complexes, generating potent catalysts by changing metal coordination. Here we adopt the same strategy to generate artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) using ligand exchange to unmask catalytic activity. By systematically testing RuII(η6-arene)(bipyridine) complexes designed to facilitate the displacement of functionalised bipyridines, we develop a fast and robust procedure for generating new enzymes via ligand exchange in a protein that has not evolved to bind such a complex. The resulting metal cofactors form peptidic coordination bonds but also retain a non-biological ligand. Tandem mass spectrometry and 19F NMR spectroscopy were used to characterise the organometallic cofactors and identify the protein-derived ligands. By introduction of ruthenium cofactors into a 4-helical bundle, transfer hydrogenation catalysts were generated that displayed a 35-fold rate increase when compared to the respective small molecule reaction in solution.
Metal: RuLigand type: Arene; BipyridineAnchoring strategy: DativeOptimization: ---Reaction: Transfer hydrogenationMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: 35 fold rate increase
Metal: RuLigand type: Arene; BipyridineHost protein: UbiquitinAnchoring strategy: DativeOptimization: ---Reaction: Transfer hydrogenationMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: 35 fold rate increase
Photoinduced Electron Transfer within Supramolecular Hemoprotein Co-Assemblies and Heterodimers Containing Fe and Zn Porphyrins
J. Inorg. Biochem. 2019, 193, 42-51, 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.01.001
Electron transfer (ET) events occurring within metalloprotein complexes are among the most important classes of reactions in biological systems. This report describes a photoinduced electron transfer between Zn porphyrin and Fe porphyrin within a supramolecular cytochrome b562 (Cyt b562) co-assembly or heterodimer with a well-defined rigid structure formed by a metalloporphyrin–heme pocket interaction and a hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface. The photoinduced charge separation (CS: kCS = 320–600 s−1) and subsequent charge recombination (CR: kCR = 580–930 s−1) were observed in both the Cyt b562 co-assembly and the heterodimer. In contrast, interestingly, no ET events were observed in a system comprised of a flexible and structurally-undefined co-assembly and heterodimers which lack the key hydrogen-bond interaction at the protein interface. Moreover, analysis of the kinetic constants of CS and CR of the heterodimer using the Marcus equation suggests that a single-step ET reaction occurs in the system. These findings provide strong support that the rigid hemoprotein-assembling system containing an appropriate hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface is essential for monitoring the ET reaction.
Ligand type: Protoporphyrin IXAnchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide; SupramolecularOptimization: Chemical & geneticReaction: Electron transferMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: ---
Reengineering Cyt b562 for Hydrogen Production: A Facile Route to Artificial Hydrogenases
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Bioenerg. 2016, 1857, 598-603, 10.1016/j.bbabio.2015.09.001
Bioinspired, protein-based molecular catalysts utilizing base metals at the active are emerging as a promising avenue to sustainable hydrogen production. The protein matrix modulates the intrinsic reactivity of organometallic active sites by tuning second-sphere and long-range interactions. Here, we show that swapping Co-Protoporphyrin IX for Fe-Protoporphyrin IX in cytochrome b562 results in an efficient catalyst for photoinduced proton reduction to molecular hydrogen. Further, the activity of wild type Co-cyt b562 can be modulated by a factor of 2.5 by exchanging the coordinating methionine with alanine or aspartic acid. The observed turnover numbers (TON) range between 125 and 305, and correlate well with the redox potential of the Co-cyt b562 mutants. The photosensitized system catalyzes proton reduction with high efficiency even under an aerobic atmosphere, implicating its use for biotechnological applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.
Metal: CoLigand type: PorphyrinAnchoring strategy: Metal substitutionOptimization: GeneticReaction: H2 evolutionMax TON: 1450ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: ---