10 publications

10 publications

An Artificial Metalloenzyme: Creation of a Designed Copper Binding Site in a Thermostable Protein

Reetz, M.T.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5151-5155, 10.1002/anie.201002106

Guided by nature: A designed binding site comprising the His/His/Asp motif for CuII complexation has been constructed in a robust protein by site‐specific mutagenesis (see picture). The artificial metalloenzyme catalyzes an enantioselective Diels–Alder reaction.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: tHisF
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 6.7
ee: 46
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Copper Enzymes for Asymmetric Diels–AlderReactions

Kamer, P.C.J.; Laan, W.

ChemCatChem 2013, 5, 1184-1191, 10.1002/cctc.201200671

The development of artificial copper enzymes from sterol carrier protein type 2 like domain (SCP‐2L) for the use in asymmetric catalysis was explored. For this purpose, proteins were modified with various nitrogen donor ligands. Maleimide‐containing ligands were found most suitable for selective cysteine bio‐conjugation. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to confirm copper binding to an introduced phenanthroline ligand, which was introduced in two unique cysteine containing SCP‐2L mutants. Copper adducts of several modified SCP‐2L templates were applied in asymmetric Diels–Alder reactions. A clear influence of both the protein environment and the introduced ligand was found in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction between azachalcone and cyclopentadiene. A promising enantioselectivity of 25 % ee was obtained by using SCP‐2L V83C modified with phenanthroline–maleimide ligand. Good endo selectivity was observed for SCP‐2L modified with the dipicolylamine‐based nitrogen donor ligand. These artificial metalloenzymes provide a suitable starting point for the implementation of various available techniques to optimise the performance of this system.


Metal: Cu
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 9.6
ee: 25
PDB: 1IKT
Notes: ---

Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the Transmembrane Protein FhuA

Okuda, J.

Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2016, 12, 1314-1321, 10.3762/bjoc.12.124

Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev). Copper(I) was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II) was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Terpyridine
Host protein: FhuA
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes with the Neocarzinostatin Scaffold: Toward a Biocatalyst for the Diels–Alder Reaction

Mahy, J.-P.; Ricoux, R.

ChemBioChem 2016, 17, 433-440, 10.1002/cbic.201500445

A new artificial enzyme formed by associating NCS‐3.24 with a copper complex catalyzed the Diels–Alder cyclization of cyclopentadiene with 2‐azachalcone and led to an increase in the formation of the exo‐products. Molecular modeling proposed the preferred relative positioning of both the Trojan horse complex and the two substrates.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 33
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Up to endo/exo ratio 62:38

Bimetallic Copper-Heme-Protein-DNA Hybrid Catalyst for Diels Alder Reaction

Fruk, L.; Niemeyer, C.M.

Croat. Chem. Acta 2011, 84, 269-275, 10.5562/cca1828

A bimetallic heme-DNA cofactor, containing an iron and a copper center, was synthesized for the design of novel hybrid catalysts for stereoselective synthesis. The cofactor was used for the reconstitution of apo-myoglobin. Both the cofactor alone and its myoglobin adduct were used to catalyze a model Diels Alder reaction. Stereoselectivity of this conversion was analyzed by chiral HPLC. Reactions carried out in the presence of myoglobin-heme-Cu-DNA catalyst showed greater product conversion and stereoselectivity than those carried out with the heme-Cu-DNA cofactor. This observation suggested that the protein shell plays a significant role in the catalytic conversion.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 7.1
ee: 18
PDB: ---
Notes: Horse heart myoglobin

Construction of a Hybrid Biocatalyst Containing a Covalently-Linked Terpyridine Metal Complex within a Cavity of Aponitrobindin

Onoda, A.

J. Inorg. Biochem. 2016, 158, 55-61, 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.12.026

A hybrid biocatalyst containing a metal terpyridine (tpy) complex within a rigid β-barrel protein nitrobindin (NB) is constructed. A tpy ligand with a maleimide group, N-[2-([2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridin]-4′-yloxy)ethyl]maleimide (1), was covalently linked to Cys96 inside the cavity of NB to prepare a conjugate NB–1. Binding of Cu2 +, Zn2 +, or Co2 + ion to the tpy ligand in NB–1 was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and ESI–TOF MS measurements. Cu2 +-bound NB–1 is found to catalyze a Diels–Alder reaction between azachalcone and cyclopentadiene in 22% yield, which is higher than that of the Cu2 +–tpy complex without the NB matrix. The results suggest that the hydrophobic cavity close to the copper active site within the NB scaffold supports the binding of the two substrates, dienophile and diene, to promote the reaction.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Terpyridine
Host protein: Nitrobindin (Nb)
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Copper–Phthalocyanine Conjugates of Serum Albumins as Enantioselective Catalysts in Diels–Alder Reactions

Reetz, M.T.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 2416-2419, 10.1002/anie.200504561

Chirality from blood: Serum albumins form strong complexes with CuII–phthalocyanines, leading to protein conjugates. These hybrid catalysts promote enantioselective Diels–Alder reactions, such as that of azachalcones 1 with cyclopentadiene (2) to give products 3 with 85–98 % ee.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phthalocyanine
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 45.5
ee: 98
PDB: ---
Notes: Chirality from blood: Serum albumins form strong complexes with CuII–phthalocyanines, leading to protein conjugates. These hybrid catalysts promote enantioselective Diels–Alder reactions, such as that of azachalcones 1 with cyclopentadiene (2) to give products 3 with 85–98 % ee.

Enantioselective Artificial Metalloenzymes by Creation of a Novel Active Site at the Protein Dimer Interface

Roelfes, G.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 7472-7475, 10.1002/anie.201202070

A game of two halves: Artificial metalloenzymes are generated by forming a novel active site on the dimer interface of the transcription factor LmrR. Two copper centers are incorporated by binding to ligands in each half of the dimer. With this system up to 97 % ee was obtained in the benchmark CuII catalyzed Diels–Alder reaction (see scheme).


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Phenanthroline
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 32.7
ee: 97
PDB: 3F8B
Notes: ---

Robust and Versatile Hos Protein for the Design and Evaluation of Artificial Metal Centers

Arold, S.T.; Eppinger, J.; Groll, M.

ACS Catal. 2019, 9, 11371-11380, 10.1021/acscatal.9b02896

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) have high potential in biotechnological applications as they combine the versatility of transition-metal catalysis with the substrate selectivity of enzymes. An ideal host protein should allow high-yield recombinant expression, display thermal and solvent stability to withstand harsh reaction conditions, lack nonspecific metal-binding residues, and contain a suitable cavity to accommodate the artificial metal site. Moreover, to allow its rational functionalization, the host should provide an intrinsic reporter for metal binding and structural changes, which should be readily amendable to high-resolution structural characterization. Herein, we present the design, characterization, and de novo functionalization of a fluorescent ArM scaffold, named mTFP*, that achieves these characteristics. Fluorescence measurements allowed direct assessment of the scaffold’s structural integrity. Protein X-ray structures and transition metal Förster resonance energy transfer (tmFRET) studies validated the engineered metal coordination sites and provided insights into metal binding dynamics at the atomic level. The implemented active metal centers resulted in ArMs with efficient Diels–Alderase and Friedel–Crafts alkylase activities.


Metal: Cu; Ni; Pd; Rh
Ligand type: ---
Host protein: Monomeric Teal FP (mTFP)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Also Friedel–Crafts alkylation

(η6-Arene) Ruthenium(II) Complexes and Metallo-Papain Hybrid as Lewis Acid Catalysts of Diels–Alder Reaction in Water

Salmain, M.

Dalton Trans. 2010, 39, 5605, 10.1039/c001630f

Covalent embedding of a (η6-arene) ruthenium(II) complex into the protein papain gives rise to a metalloenzyme displaying a catalytic efficiency for a Lewis acid-mediated catalysed Diels–Alder reaction enhanced by two orders of magnitude in water.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Benzene; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 440
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 220 h-1