9 publications

9 publications

Artificial Metalloproteins Exploiting Vacant Space: Preparation, Structures, and Functions

Review

Watanabe, Y.

Top. Organomet. Chem. 2009, 10.1007/3418_2008_4

Molecular design of artificial metalloproteins is one of the most attractive subjects in bioinorganic chemistry. Protein vacant space has been utilized to prepare metalloproteins because it provides a unique chemical environment for application to catalysts and to biomaterials bearing electronic, magnetic, and medical properties. Recently, X-ray crystal structural analysis has increased in this research area because it is a powerful tool for understanding the interactions of metal complexes and protein scaffolds, and for providing rational design of these composites. This chapter reviews the recent studies on the preparation methods and X-ray crystal structural analyses of metal/protein composites, and their functions as catalysts, metal-drugs, etc.


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Control of the Coordination Structure of Organometallic Palladium Complexes in an Apo-Ferritin Cage

Ueno, T.; Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10512-10514, 10.1021/ja802463a

We report the preparation of organometallic Pd(allyl) dinuclear complexes in protein cages of apo-Fr by reactions with [Pd(allyl)Cl]2 (allyl = η3-C3H5). One of the dinuclear complexes is converted to a trinuclear complex by replacing a Pd-coordinated His residue to an Ala residue. These results suggest that multinuclear metal complexes with various coordination structures could be prepared by the deletion or introduction of His, Cys, and Glu at appropriate positions on protein surface.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Allyl
Host protein: Ferritin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Suzuki coupling
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2ZG7
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Coordinated Design of Cofactor and Active Site Structures in Development of New Protein Catalysts

Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 6556-6562, 10.1021/ja045995q

New methods for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes are important for the construction of novel biocatalysts and biomaterials. Recently, we reported new methodology for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes by reconstituting apo-myoglobin with metal complexes (Ohashi, M. et al., Angew Chem., Int. Ed.2003, 42, 1005−1008). However, it has been difficult to improve their reactivity, since their crystal structures were not available. In this article, we report the crystal structures of MIII(Schiff base)·apo-A71GMbs (M = Cr and Mn). The structures suggest that the position of the metal complex in apo-Mb is regulated by (i) noncovalent interaction between the ligand and surrounding peptides and (ii) the ligation of the metal ion to proximal histidine (His93). In addition, it is proposed that specific interactions of Ile107 with 3- and 3‘-substituent groups on the salen ligand control the location of the Schiff base ligand in the active site. On the basis of these results, we have successfully controlled the enantioselectivity in the sulfoxidation of thioanisole by changing the size of substituents at the 3 and 3‘ positions. This is the first example of an enantioselective enzymatic reaction regulated by the design of metal complex in the protein active site.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1V9Q
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Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1J3F
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
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Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Coordination Design of Artificial Metalloproteins Utilizing Protein Vacant Space

Review

Watanabe, Y.

Coord. Chem. Rev. 2007, 251, 2717-2731, 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.04.007

Design of artificial metalloproteins is one of the most important subjects in the field of bioinorganic chemistry. In order to prepare them, vacant space of proteins has been utilized because it gives us unique chemical environment to construct catalysts and materials. This article reviews on preparation methods and properties of metal/protein composites. The discussion includes our recent results and development in the screening of composites, crystal structures, molecular design of bio-inspired systems concerning catalysts, electrochemistry, and materials.


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Design of Metal Cofactors Activated by a Protein–Protein Electron Transfer System

Watanabe, Y.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2006, 103, 9416-9421, 10.1073/pnas.0510968103

Protein-to-protein electron transfer (ET) is a critical process in biological chemistry for which fundamental understanding is expected to provide a wealth of applications in biotechnology. Investigations of protein–protein ET systems in reductive activation of artificial cofactors introduced into proteins remains particularly challenging because of the complexity of interactions between the cofactor and the system contributing to ET. In this work, we construct an artificial protein–protein ET system, using heme oxygenase (HO), which is known to catalyze the conversion of heme to biliverdin. HO uses electrons provided from NADPH/cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) through protein–protein complex formation during the enzymatic reaction. We report that a FeIII(Schiff-base), in the place of the active-site heme prosthetic group of HO, can be reduced by NADPH/CPR. The crystal structure of the Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO composite indicates the presence of a hydrogen bond between the propionic acid carboxyl group and Arg-177 of HO. Furthermore, the ET rate from NADPH/CPR to the composite is 3.5-fold faster than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO, although the redox potential of Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO (−79 mV vs. NHE) is lower than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO (+15 mV vs. NHE), where NHE is normal hydrogen electrode. This work describes a synthetic metal complex activated by means of a protein–protein ET system, which has not previously been reported. Moreover, the result suggests the importance of the hydrogen bond for the ET reaction of HO. Our Fe(Schiff-base)·HO composite model system may provide insights with regard to design of ET biosystems for sensors, catalysts, and electronics devices.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Heme oxygenase (HO)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1WZD
Notes: ---

Hybridization of Modified-Heme Reconstitution and Distal Histidine Mutation to Functionalize Sperm Whale Myoglobin

Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 436-437, 10.1021/ja038798k

To modulate the physiological function of a hemoprotein, most approaches have been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of the native heme with an artificial prosthetic group is another way to modify a hemoprotein. However, an alternate method, mutation or heme reconstitution, does not always demonstrate sufficient improvement compared with the native heme enzyme. In the present study, to convert a simple oxygen storage hemoprotein, myoglobin, into an active peroxidase, we applied both methods at the same time. The native heme of myoglobin was replaced with a chemically modified heme 2 having two aromatic rings at the heme-propionate termini. The constructed myoglobins were examined for 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol) oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Compared with native myoglobin, rMb(H64D·2) showed a 430-fold higher kcat/Km value, which is significantly higher than that of cytochrome c peroxidase and only 3-fold less than that of horseradish peroxidase. In addition, myoglobin-catalyzed degradation of bisphenol A was examined by HPLC analysis. The rMb(H64D·2) showed drastic acceleration (>35-fold) of bisphenol A degradation compared with the native myoglobin. In this system, a highly oxidized heme reactive species is smoothly generated and a substrate is effectively bound in the heme pocket, while native myoglobin only reversibly binds dioxygen. The present results indicate that the combination of a modified-heme reconstitution and an amino acid mutation should offer interesting perspectives toward developing a useful biomolecule catalyst from a hemoprotein.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Molecular Design of Heteroprotein Assemblies Providing a Bionanocup as a Chemical Reactor

Ueno, T.; Watanabe, Y.

Small 2008, 4, 50-54, 10.1002/smll.200700855

A bionanocup chemical reactor is constructed from a heteroprotein assembly from bacteriophage T4. The preparation of a stable iron(III) porphyrin–bionanocup composite is described. The hydrophobic cup provides a space suitable for the fixation of low‐water‐solubility iron(III) porphyrins. The application of the iron(III) porphyrin–bionanocup composites for the catalysis of sulfoxidation of thioanisoles is demonstrated (see figure).


Metal: Fe
Host protein: (gp27-gp5)3
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Polymerization of Phenylacetylene by Rhodium Complexes within a Discrete Space of apo-Ferritin

Ueno, T.; Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 6958-6960, 10.1021/ja901234j

Polymerization reactions of phenylacetylene derivatives are promoted by rhodium complexes within the discrete space of apo-ferritin in aqueous media. The catalytic reaction provides polymers with restricted molecular weight and a narrow molecular weight distribution. These results suggest that protein nanocages have potential for use as various reaction spaces through immobilization of metal catalysts on the interior surfaces of the protein cages.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Norbornadiene
Host protein: Ferritin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2ZUR
Notes: ---

Preparation of Artificial Metalloenzymes by Insertion of Chromium(III) Schiff Base Complexes into apo-Myoglobin Mutants

Watanabe, Y.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 1005-1008, 10.1002/anie.200390256

Insertion of a symmetric metal complex, [CrIII(5,5′‐tBu‐salophen)]+ (H2salophen=N,N′‐bis(salicylidene)‐1,2‐phenylenediamine), into the active site of apomyoglobin is demonstrated (see picture). The metal ion and the ligand structure are very important factors that influence the binding affinity of the metal complex with the myoglobin (Mb) cavity. Semisynthetic metalloenzymes can catalyze enantioselective sulfoxidation by using the chiral protein cavity.


Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---