17 publications

17 publications

An Enantioselective Artificial Suzukiase Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 673-677, 10.1039/c5sc03116h

Introduction of a biotinylated monophosphine palladium complex within streptavidin affords an enantioselective artificial Suzukiase. Site-directed mutagenesis allowed the optimization of the activity and the enantioselectivity of this artificial metalloenzyme. A variety of atropisomeric biaryls were produced in good yields and up to 90% ee.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Allyl; Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 88
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Allyl; Carbene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 5
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation on the Basis of the Biotin–Avidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 701-705, 10.1002/anie.200703159

Palladium in the active site: The incorporation of a biotinylated palladium diphosphine within streptavidin yielded an artificial metalloenzyme for the title reaction (see scheme). Chemogenetic optimization of the catalyst by the introduction of a spacer (red star) between biotin (green triangle) and palladium and saturation mutagenesis at position S112X afforded both R‐ and S‐selective artificial asymmetric allylic alkylases.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Allylic alkylation
Max TON: 10
ee: 93
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Catalysis Based on Biotin-Avidin

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9030-9031, 10.1021/ja035545i

Homogeneous and enzymatic catalysis offer complementary means to generate enantiomerically pure compounds. Incorporation of achiral biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes into (strept)avidin yields artificial metalloenzymes for the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to produce (R)-acetamidoalanine with 96% enantioselectivity. These hybrid catalysts display features reminiscent both of enzymatic and of homogeneous systems.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 96
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes: (Strept)avidin as Host for Enantioselective Hydrogenation by Achiral Biotinylated Rhodium-Diphosphine Complexes

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 14411-14418, 10.1021/ja0476718

We report on the generation of artificial metalloenzymes based on the noncovalent incorporation of biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes in (strept)avidin as host proteins. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to optimize the enantioselectivity for the reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid (up to 96% ee (R) in streptavidin S112G and up to 80% ee (S) in WT avidin). The association constant between a prototypical cationic biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine catalyst precursor and the host proteins was determined at neutral pH:  log Ka = 7.7 for avidin (pI = 10.4) and log Ka = 7.1 for streptavidin (pI = 6.4). It is shown that the optimal operating conditions for the enantioselective reduction are 5 bar at 30 °C with a 1% catalyst loading.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes Through Cysteine-Selective Conjugation of Phosphines to Photoactive Yellow Protein

Kamer, P.C.J.

ChemBioChem 2010, 11, 1236-1239, 10.1002/cbic.201000159

Pinning phosphines on proteins: A method for the cysteine‐selective bioconjugation of phosphines has been developed. The photoactive yellow protein has been site‐selectively functionalized with phosphine ligands and phosphine transition metal complexes to afford artificial metalloenzymes that are active in palladium‐catalysed allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Allyl; Phosphine
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Allylic amination
Max TON: 45
ee: ---
PDB: 2PHY
Notes: ---

Asymmetric Hydrogenation with Antibody-Achiral Rhodium Complex

Harada, A.

Org. Biomol. Chem. 2006, 4, 3571, 10.1039/B609242J

Monoclonal antibodies have been elicited against an achiral rhodium complex and this complex was used in the presence of a resultant antibody, 1G8, for the catalytic hydrogenation of 2-acetamidoacrylic acid to produce N-acetyl-L-alanine in high (>98%) enantiomeric excess.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Phosphine
Host protein: Antibody 1G8
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid in a Biotinylated Pyrphos-Rhodium(I) System in a Protein Cavity

Chan, A.S.C.

Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 1999, 10, 1887-1893, 10.1016/S0957-4166(99)00193-7

The construction of a chiral catalyst system embedded at a specific site in a protein has been studied. The preparation of the biotinylated Pyrphos–Rh(I) complex attached to the binding site in avidin and its application to the asymmetric hydrogenation of itaconic acid have been investigated. By introducing the chiral Pyrphos–Rh(I) moiety into the constrained environment of the protein cavity it was found that the enantioselectivity of the system was significantly influenced by the tertiary conformation within the avidin cavity. The effects of reaction conditions such as temperature, hydrogen pressure, and the pH value of the buffer on enantioselectivity are reported.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 31
ee: 48
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Chemical Optimization of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin-Avidin Technology: (S)-Selective and Solvent-Tolerant Hydrogenation Catalysts via the Introduction of Chiral Amino Acid Spacers

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Commun. 2005, 4815, 10.1039/b509015f

Incorporation of biotinylated-[rhodium(diphosphine)]+ complexes, with enantiopure amino acid spacers, in streptavidin affords solvent-tolerant and selective artificial metalloenzymes: up to 91% ee (S) in the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Conversion of a Protein to a Homogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalyst by Site-Specific Modification with a Diphosphinerhodium (I) Moiety

Whitesides, G.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 306-307, 10.1021/ja00469a064

n/a


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 500
ee: 41
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Directed Evolution of Hybrid Enzymes: Evolving Enantioselectivity of an Achiral Rh-Complex Anchored to a Protein

Reetz, M.T.

Chem. Commun. 2006, 4318, 10.1039/b610461d

The concept of utilizing the methods of directed evolution for tuning the enantioselectivity of synthetic achiral metal–ligand centers anchored to proteins has been implemented experimentally for the first time.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 4500
ee: 65
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Merging Homogeneous Catalysis with Biocatalysis; Papain as Hydrogenation Catalyst

de Vries, J.

Chem. Commun. 2005, 5656, 10.1039/B512138H

Papain, modified at Cys-25 with a monodentate phosphite ligand and complexed with Rh(COD)2BF4, is an active catalyst in the hydrogenation of methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 400
ee: <10
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal-Conjugated Affinity Labels: A New Concept to Create Enantioselective Artificial Metalloenzymes

Eppinger, J.

ChemistryOpen 2013, 2, 50-54, 10.1002/open.201200044

How to train a protein: Metal‐conjugated affinity labels were used to selectively position catalytically active metal centers in the binding pocket of proteases. The resulting artificial metalloenzymes achieve up to 82 % e.r. in the hydrogenation of ketones. The modular setup enables a rapid generation of artificial metalloenzyme libraries, which can be adapted to a broad range of catalytic conditions.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Phosphine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 89
ee: 64
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Benzene; Phosphine
Host protein: Bromelain
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 44
ee: 20
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Protein Delivery of a Ni Catalyst to Photosystem I for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production

Tiede, D.M.; Utschig, L.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 13246-13249, 10.1021/ja405277g

The direct conversion of sunlight into fuel is a promising means for the production of storable renewable energy. Herein, we use Nature’s specialized photosynthetic machinery found in the Photosystem I (PSI) protein to drive solar fuel production from a nickel diphosphine molecular catalyst. Upon exposure to visible light, a self-assembled PSI-[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 hybrid generates H2 at a rate 2 orders of magnitude greater than rates reported for photosensitizer/[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 systems. The protein environment enables photocatalysis at pH 6.3 in completely aqueous conditions. In addition, we have developed a strategy for incorporating the Ni molecular catalyst with the native acceptor protein of PSI, flavodoxin. Photocatalysis experiments with this modified flavodoxin demonstrate a new mechanism for biohybrid creation that involves protein-directed delivery of a molecular catalyst to the reducing side of Photosystem I for light-driven catalysis. This work further establishes strategies for constructing functional, inexpensive, earth-abundant solar fuel-producing PSI hybrids that use light to rapidly produce hydrogen directly from water.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Flavodoxin (Fld)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 94
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Photosystem I (PSI)
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 1870
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Second Generation Artificial Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin- Avidin Technology: Improving Activity, Stability and Selectivity by Introduction of Enantiopure Amino Acid Spacers

Ward, T.R.

Adv. Synth. Catal. 2007, 349, 1923-1930, 10.1002/adsc.200700022

We report on our efforts to create efficient artificial metalloenzymes for the enantioselective hydrogenation of N‐protected dehydroamino acids using either avidin or streptavidin as host proteins. Introduction of chiral amino acid spacers – phenylalanine or proline – between the biotin anchor and the flexible aminodiphosphine moiety 1, combined with saturation mutagenesis at position S112X of streptavidin, affords second generation artificial hydrogenases displaying improved organic solvent tolerance, reaction rates (3‐fold) and (S)‐selectivities (up to 95 % ee for N‐acetamidoalanine and N‐acetamidophenylalanine). It is shown that these artificial metalloenzymes follow Michaelis–Menten kinetics with an increased affinity for the substrate and a higher kcat than the protein‐free catalyst (compare kcat 3.06 min−1 and KM 7.38 mM for [Rh(COD)Biot‐1]+ with kcat 12.30 min−1 and KM 4.36 mM for [Rh(COD)Biot‐(R)‐Pro‐1]+ ⊂ WT Sav). Finally, we present a straightforward protocol using Biotin‐Sepharose to immobilize artificial metalloenzymes (>92 % ee for N‐acetamidoalanine and N‐acetamidophenylalanine using [Rh(COD)Biot‐(R)‐Pro‐1]+ ⊂ Sav S112W).


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 95
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Second-Generation Artificial Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin-Avidin Technology: Improving Selectivity and Organic Solvent Tolerance by Introduction of an (R)-Proline Spacer

Ward, T.R.

C. R. Chim. 2007, 10, 678-683, 10.1016/j.crci.2007.02.020

We report on our efforts to create efficient artificial metalloenzymes for the enantioselective hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids using streptavidin as host protein. Introduction of an (R)-proline spacer between the biotin anchor and the diphosphine moiety affords a versatile ligand Biot-(R)-Pro-1 which displays good (S)-selectivities in the presence of streptavidin (91% ee). The resulting artificial metalloenzyme [Rh(Biot-(R)-Pro-1)(COD)]+ ⊂ WT-Sav displays increased stability against organic solvents.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Synthesis of Hybrid Transition-Metalloproteins via Thiol-Selective Covalent Anchoring of Rh-Phosphine and Ru-Phenanthroline Complexes

Kamer, P.C.J.; Laan, W.

Dalton Trans. 2010, 39, 8477, 10.1039/c0dt00239a

The preparation of hybrid transition metalloproteins by thiol-selective incorporation of organometallic rhodium- and ruthenium complexes is described. Phosphine ligands and two rhodium-diphosphine complexes bearing a carboxylic acid group were coupled to the cysteine of PYP R52G, yielding a metalloenzyme active in the rhodium catalyzed hydrogenation of dimethyl itaconate. The successful coupling was shown by 31P NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectroscopy. In addition wild-type PYP (PYP WT), PYP R52G and ALBP were successfully modified with a (η6-arene) ruthenium(II) phenanthroline complex via a maleimide linker.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Phosphine
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2PHY
Notes: ---

Tailoring the Active Site of Chemzymes by Using a Chemogenetic-Optimization Procedure: Towards Substrate-Specific Artificial Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin–Avidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 7764-7767, 10.1002/anie.200502000

The combination of chemical‐ with genetic‐optimization strategies (i.e. chemogenetic) allows the production of artificial hydrogenases based on the biotin–avidin technology. In the spirit of enzymes, second‐coordination‐sphere interactions between the host protein (streptavidin) and the substrate (an olefin) allow fine‐tuning of the selectivity to produce either R or S hydrogenation products.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---