Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 8978-8982, 10.1021/ja990314q
An antibody−metalloporphyrin assembly that catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides to sulfoxides is presented. Antibody SN37.4 was elicited against a water-soluble tin(IV) porphyrin containing an axial α-naphthoxy ligand. The catalytic assembly comprising antibody SN37.4 and a ruthenium(II) porphyrin cofactor exhibited typical enzyme characteristics, such as predetermined oxidant and substrate selectivity, enantioselective delivery of oxygen to the substrate, and Michaelis−Menten saturation kinetics. This assembly, which promotes a complex, multistep catalytic event, represents a close model of natural heme-dependent oxidation enzymes.
Metal: RuLigand type: PorphyrinHost protein: Antibody SN37.4Optimization: ChemicalReaction: SulfoxidationMax TON: 750ee: 43PDB: ---Notes: ---
Artificial Metalloenzymes based on Protein Cavities: Exploring the Effect of Altering the Metal Ligand Attachment Position by Site Directed Mutagenesis
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1999, 9, 79-84, 10.1016/S0960-894X(98)00684-2
In an effort to construct catalysts with enzyme-like properties, we are employing a small, cavity-containing protein as a scaffold for the attachment of catalytic groups. In earlier work we demonstrated that a phenanthroline ligand could be introduced into the cavity of the protein ALBP and used to catalyze ester hydrolysis. To examine the effect of positioning the phenanthroline catalyst at different locations wthin the protein cavity, three new constucts — Phen60, Phen72 and Phen104 — were prepared. Each new conjugate was characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, guanidine hydrochloride denaturation, gel filtration chromatography, and CD spectroscopy to confirm the preparation of the desired contruct. Analysis of reactions containing Ala-OiPr showed that Phen60 catalyzed ester hydrolysis with less selectivity than ALBP-Phen while Phen72 promoted this same reaction with higher selectivity. Reactions with Tyr-OMe were catalyzed with higher selectivity by Phen60 and more rapidly by Phen104. These results demonstrate that both the rates and selectivities of hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by these constructs are dependent on the precise site of attachment of the metal ligand within the protein cavity.
Metal: CuLigand type: PhenanthrolineHost protein: Adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP)Anchoring strategy: CovalentOptimization: GeneticReaction: Hydrolytic cleavageMax TON: 1 to 4ee: 61 to 94PDB: ---Notes: Varied attachment position
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid in a Biotinylated Pyrphos-Rhodium(I) System in a Protein Cavity
Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 1999, 10, 1887-1893, 10.1016/S0957-4166(99)00193-7
The construction of a chiral catalyst system embedded at a specific site in a protein has been studied. The preparation of the biotinylated Pyrphos–Rh(I) complex attached to the binding site in avidin and its application to the asymmetric hydrogenation of itaconic acid have been investigated. By introducing the chiral Pyrphos–Rh(I) moiety into the constrained environment of the protein cavity it was found that the enantioselectivity of the system was significantly influenced by the tertiary conformation within the avidin cavity. The effects of reaction conditions such as temperature, hydrogen pressure, and the pH value of the buffer on enantioselectivity are reported.
Metal: RhLigand type: PhosphineHost protein: Avidin (Av)Optimization: ---Reaction: HydrogenationMax TON: 31ee: 48PDB: ---Notes: ---
Peroxidase Activity of Myoglobin is Enhanced by Chemical Mutation of Heme-Propionates
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7747-7750, 10.1021/ja9841005
Peroxidase activity of a myoglobin reconstituted with a chemically modified heme 1 is reported. The heme 1 bearing a total of eight carboxylates bound to the terminal of propionate side chains is incorporated into apomyoglobin from horse heart to obtain a new reconstituted myoglobin, rMb(1), with a unique binding domain structure. The UV−vis, CD, and NMR spectra of rMb(1) are comparable with those of native myoglobin, nMb. The mixing of rMb(1) with hydrogen peroxide yields a peroxidase compound II-like species, rMb(1)-II, since the spectrum of rMb(1)-II is identical with that observed for nMb. Stoichiometric oxidation of several small molecules by rMb(1)-II, demonstrates the significant reactivity. (i) The oxidation of cationic substrate such as [Ru(NH3)6]2+ by rMb(1)-II is faster than that observed for oxoferryl species of nMb, nMb-II. (ii) Anionic substrates such as ferrocyanide are unsuitable for the oxidation by rMb(1)-II. (iii) Oxidations of catechol, hydroquinone, and guaiacol are dramatically enhanced by rMb(1)-II (14−32-fold) compared to those observed for nMb-II. Thus, the chemical modification of heme-propionates can alter substrate specificity. Steady-state kinetic measurements indicate that both the reactivity and substrate affinity toward guaiacol oxidation by rMb(1) are improved, so that the specificity, kcat/Km, is 13-fold higher than that in nMb. This result strongly suggests that the artificially modified heme-propionates may increase the accessibility of neutral aromatic substrates to the heme active site. The present work demonstrates that the chemical mutation of prosthetic group is a new strategy to create proteins with engineered function.
Metal: FeLigand type: Double winged protoporphyrin IXHost protein: Myoglobin (Mb)Anchoring strategy: ReconstitutionOptimization: ---Reaction: Peroxidase activityMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: ---
Studies of the Reactivity of Artificial Peroxidase-Like Hemoproteins Based on Antibodies Elicited Against a Specifically Designed ortho-Carboxy Substituted Tetraarylporphyrin
FEBS Lett. 1999, 443, 229-234, 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01703-7
The temperature and pH dependence as well as the selectivity of the peroxidase activity of a complex associating a monoclonal antibody 13G10 with its iron(III)‐α,α,α,β‐meso‐tetrakis(ortho‐carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (Fe(ToCPP)) hapten have been studied and compared to those of Fe(ToCPP) alone. It first appears that the peroxidase activity of the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex is remarkably thermostable and remains about 5 times higher than that of Fe(ToCPP) alone until at least 80°C. Secondly, this complex is able to use not only H2O2 as oxidant but also a wide range of hydroperoxides such as alkyl, aralkyl and fatty acid hydroperoxides and catalyze their reduction 2–6‐fold faster than Fe(ToCPP) alone. It is also able to catalyze the oxidation by H2O2 of a variety of reducing cosubstrates such as 2,2′‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS), o‐phenylenediamine (OPD), 3,3′,5,5′‐tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and 3,3′‐dimethoxybenzidine 3–8‐fold faster than Fe(ToCPP) alone, the bicyclic aromatic ABTS and TMB being the best reducing cosubstrates. Finally, a pH dependence study, between pH 4.6 and 7.5, of the oxidation of ABTS by H2O2 in the presence of either 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) or Fe(ToCPP) shows that K m(H2O2) values vary very similarly for both catalysts, whereas very different variations are found for the k cat values. With Fe(ToCPP) as catalyst the k cat value remains constant around 100 min−1 whereas with the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex, it increases sharply below pH 5 to reach 540 min−1 at pH 4.6. This could be due to the participation of a carboxylic acid side chain of the antibody protein, as a general acid‐base catalyst, to the heterolytic cleavage of the O‐O bond of H2O2 leading to the highly reactive iron(V)‐oxo intermediate in the peroxidase mechanism. Accordingly, the modification of the carboxylic acid residues of antibody 13G10 by glycinamide leads to a 50% decrease of the peroxidase activity of the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex.
Metal: FeLigand type: PorphyrinHost protein: Antibody 13G10Optimization: ---Reaction: Peroxidation or oxygenationMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: TOF = 4.7 min-1