3 publications

3 publications

Biocompatibility and Therapeutic Potential of Glycosylated Albumin Artificial Metalloenzymes

Tanaka, K.

Nat. Catal. 2019, 2, 780-792, 10.1038/s41929-019-0317-4

The ability of natural metalloproteins to prevent inactivation of their metal cofactors by biological metabolites, such as glutathione, is an area that has been largely ignored in the field of artificial metalloenzyme (ArM) development. Yet, for ArM research to transition into future therapeutic applications, biocompatibility remains a crucial component. The work presented here shows the creation of a human serum albumin-based ArM that can robustly protect the catalytic activity of a bound ruthenium metal, even in the presence of 20 mM glutathione under in vitro conditions. To exploit this biocompatibility, the concept of glycosylated artificial metalloenzymes (GArM) was developed, which is based on functionalizing ArMs with N-glycan targeting moieties. As a potential drug therapy, this study shows that ruthenium-bound GArM complexes could preferentially accumulate to varying cancer cell lines via glycan-based targeting for prodrug activation of the anticancer agent umbelliprenin using ring-closing metathesis.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Hoveyda–Grubbs
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 29.9
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Capture and Characterization of a Reactive Haem– Carbenoid Complex in an Artificial Metalloenzyme

Hilvert, D.

Nat. Catal. 2018, 1, 578-584, 10.1038/s41929-018-0105-6

Non-canonical amino acid ligands are useful for fine-tuning the catalytic properties of metalloenzymes. Here, we show that recombinant replacement of the histidine ligand proximal to haem in myoglobin with Nδ-methylhistidine enhances the protein’s promiscuous carbene-transfer chemistry, enabling efficient styrene cyclopropanation in the absence of reductant, even under aerobic conditions. The increased electrophilicity of the modified Fe(iii) centre, combined with subtle structural adjustments at the active site, allows direct attack of ethyl diazoacetate to produce a reactive carbenoid adduct, which has an unusual bridging Fe(iii)–C–N(pyrrole) configuration as shown by X-ray crystallography. Quantum chemical calculations suggest that the bridged complex equilibrates with the more reactive end-on isomer, ensuring efficient cyclopropanation. These findings underscore the potential of non-canonical ligands for extending the capabilities of metalloenzymes by opening up new reaction pathways and facilitating the characterization of reactive species that would not otherwise accumulate.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 1000
ee: 99
PDB: 6F17
Notes: Structure of the Mb*(NMH) haem-iron complex

Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: 1000
ee: 99
PDB: 6G5B
Notes: Structure of the Mb*(NMH) haem-iron–carbenoid complex

Redox-Switchable Siderophore Anchor Enables Reversible Artificial Metalloenzyme Assembly

Duhme-Klair, A.K.; Wilson, K.S.

Nat. Catal. 2018, 1, 680-688, 10.1038/s41929-018-0124-3

Artificial metalloenzymes that contain protein-anchored synthetic catalysts are attracting increasing interest. An exciting, but still unrealized advantage of non-covalent anchoring is its potential for reversibility and thus component recycling. Here we present a siderophore–protein combination that enables strong but redox-reversible catalyst anchoring, as exemplified by an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase). By linking the iron(iii)-binding siderophore azotochelin to an iridium-containing imine-reduction catalyst that produces racemic product in the absence of the protein CeuE, but a reproducible enantiomeric excess if protein bound, the assembly and reductively triggered disassembly of the ATHase was achieved. The crystal structure of the ATHase identified the residues involved in high-affinity binding and enantioselectivity. While in the presence of iron(iii), the azotochelin-based anchor binds CeuE with high affinity, and the reduction of the coordinated iron(iii) to iron(ii) triggers its dissociation from the protein. Thus, the assembly of the artificial enzyme can be controlled via the iron oxidation state.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Pyridine sulfonamide
Host protein: CeuE
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: 35.4
PDB: 5OD5
Notes: Redox switchable iron(III)-azotochelin anchor