10 publications

10 publications

A Hybrid Ring- Opening Metathesis Polymerization Catalyst Based on an Engineered Variant of the Beta-Barrel Protein FhuA

Okuda, J.; Schwaneberg, U.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2013, 19, 13865-13871, 10.1002/chem.201301515

A β‐barrel protein hybrid catalyst was prepared by covalently anchoring a Grubbs–Hoveyda type olefin metathesis catalyst at a single accessible cysteine amino acid in the barrel interior of a variant of β‐barrel transmembrane protein ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA). Activity of this hybrid catalyst type was demonstrated by ring‐opening metathesis polymerization of a 7‐oxanorbornene derivative in aqueous solution.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: FhuA ΔCVFtev
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 955
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ROMP

An Artificial Enzyme Made by Covalent Grafting of an FeII Complex into β-Lactoglobulin: Molecular Chemistry, Oxidation Catalysis, and Reaction-Intermediate Monitoring in a Protein

Banse, F.; Mahy, J.-P.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2015, 21, 12188-12193, 10.1002/chem.201501755

An artificial metalloenzyme based on the covalent grafting of a nonheme FeII polyazadentate complex into bovine β‐lactoglobulin has been prepared and characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. Attachment of the FeII catalyst to the protein scaffold is shown to occur specifically at Cys121. In addition, spectrophotometric titration with cyanide ions based on the spin‐state conversion of the initial high spin (S=2) FeII complex into a low spin (S=0) one allows qualitative and quantitative characterization of the metal center’s first coordination sphere. This biohybrid catalyst activates hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thioanisole into phenylmethylsulfoxide as the sole product with an enantiomeric excess of up to 20 %. Investigation of the reaction between the biohybrid system and H2O2 reveals the generation of a high spin (S=5/2) FeIII(η2‐O2) intermediate, which is proposed to be responsible for the catalytic sulfoxidation of the substrate.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Poly-pyridine
Host protein: ß-lactoglobulin
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 5.6
ee: 20
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Catalysis Based on the Noncovalent Incorporation of Organometallic Moieties in a Host Protein

Review

Ward, T.R.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2005, 11, 3798-3804, 10.1002/chem.200401232

Enzymatic and homogeneous catalysis offer complementary means to produce enantiopure products. Incorporation of achiral, biotinylated aminodiphosphine–rhodium complexes in (strept)avidin affords enantioselective hydrogenation catalysts. A combined chemogenetic procedure allows the optimization of the activity and the selectivity of such artificial metalloenzymes: the reduction of acetamidoacrylate proceeds to produce N‐acetamidoalanine in either 96 % ee (R) or 80 % ee (S). In addition to providing a chiral second coordination sphere and, thus, selectivity to the catalyst, the phenomenon of protein‐accelerated catalysis (e.g., increased activity) was unraveled. Such artificial metalloenzymes based on the biotin–avidin technology display features that are reminiscent of both homogeneous and of enzymatic catalysis.


Notes: ---

Bioinspired Catalyst Design and Artificial Metalloenzymes

Review

Kamer, P.C.J.; Laan, W.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2011, 17, 4680-4698, 10.1002/chem.201003646

Many bioinspired transition‐metal catalysts have been developed over the recent years. In this review the progress in the design and application of ligand systems based on peptides and DNA and the development of artificial metalloenzymes are reviewed with a particular emphasis on the combination of phosphane ligands with powerful molecular recognition and shape selectivity of biomolecules. The various approaches for the assembly of these catalytic systems will be highlighted, and the possibilities that the use of the building blocks of Nature provide for catalyst optimisation strategies are discussed.


Notes: ---

Engineered Metalloenzymes with Non-Canonical Coordination Environments

Review

Green, A.P.; Hilvert, D.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2018, 24, 11821-11830, 10.1002/chem.201800975

Nature employs a limited number of genetically encoded, metal‐coordinating residues to create metalloenzymes with diverse structures and functions. Engineered components of the cellular translation machinery can now be exploited to encode non‐canonical ligands with user‐defined electronic and structural properties. This ability to install “chemically programmed” ligands into proteins can provide powerful chemical probes of metalloenzyme mechanism and presents excellent opportunities to create metalloprotein catalysts with augmented properties and novel activities. In this Concept article, we provide an overview of several recent studies describing the creation of engineered metalloenzymes with interesting catalytic properties, and reveal how characterization of these systems has advanced our understanding of nature's bioinorganic mechanisms. We also highlight how powerful laboratory evolution protocols can be readily adapted to allow optimization of metalloenzymes with non‐canonical ligands. This approach combines beneficial features of small molecule and protein catalysis by allowing the installation of a greater variety of local metal coordination environments into evolvable protein scaffolds, and holds great promise for the future creation of powerful metalloprotein catalysts for a host of synthetically valuable transformations.


Notes: ---

Manganese-Substituted Carbonic Anhydrase as a New Peroxidase

Kazlauskas, R.J.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2006, 12, 1587-1596, 10.1002/chem.200501413

Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. Replacing the active‐site zinc with manganese yielded manganese‐substituted carbonic anhydrase (CA[Mn]), which shows peroxidase activity with a bicarbonate‐dependent mechanism. In the presence of bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide, (CA[Mn]) catalyzed the efficient oxidation of o‐dianisidine with kcat/KM=1.4×106 m−1 s−1, which is comparable to that for horseradish peroxidase, kcat/KM=57×106 m−1 s−1. CA[Mn] also catalyzed the moderately enantioselective epoxidation of olefins to epoxides (E=5 for p‐chlorostyrene) in the presence of an amino‐alcohol buffer, such as N,N‐bis(2‐hydroxyethyl)‐2‐aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES). This enantioselectivity is similar to that for natural heme‐based peroxidases, but has the advantage that CA[Mn] avoids the formation of aldehyde side products. CA[Mn] degrades during the epoxidation limiting the yield of the epoxidations to <12 %. Replacement of active‐site residues Asn62, His64, Asn67, Gln92, or Thr200 with alanine by site‐directed mutagenesis decreased the enantioselectivity demonstrating that the active site controls the enantioselectivity of the epoxidation.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Epoxidation
Max TON: 22
ee: 67
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Epoxidation
Max TON: 9.5
ee: 55
PDB: 4CAC
Notes: PDB ID 4CAC = Structure of Zn containing hCAII

Noncovalent Modulation of pH-Dependent Reactivity of a Mn–Salen Cofactor in Myoglobin with Hydrogen Peroxide

Lu, Y.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2009, 15, 7481-7489, 10.1002/chem.200802449

To demonstrate protein modulation of metal‐cofactor reactivity through noncovalent interactions, pH‐dependent sulfoxidation and 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulphonic acid) (ABTS) oxidation reactivity of a designed myoglobin (Mb) containing non‐native Mn–salen complex (1) was investigated using H2O2 as the oxidant. Incorporation of 1 inside the Mb resulted in an increase in the turnover numbers through exclusion of water from the metal complex and prevention of Mn–salen dimer formation. Interestingly, the presence of protein in itself is not enough to confer the increase activity as mutation of the distal His64 in Mb to Phe to remove hydrogen‐bonding interactions resulted in no increase in the turnover numbers, while mutation His64 to Arg, another residue with ability to hydrogen‐bond interactions, resulted in an increase in reactivity. These results strongly suggest that the distal ligand His64, through its hydrogen‐bonding interaction, plays important roles in enhancing and fine‐tuning reactivity of the Mn–salen complex. Nonlinear least‐squares fitting of rate versus pH plots demonstrates that 1⋅Mb(H64X) (X=H, R and F) and the control Mn–salen 1 exhibit pKa values varying from pH 6.4 to 8.3, and that the lower pKa of the distal ligand in 1⋅Mb(H64X), the higher the reactivity it achieves. Moreover, in addition to the pKa at high pH, 1⋅Mb displays another pKa at low pH, with pKa of 5.0±0.08. A comparison of the effect of different pH on sulfoxidation and ABTS oxidation indicates that, while the intermediate produced at low pH conditions could only perform sulfoxidation, the intermediate at high pH could oxidize both sulfoxides and ABTS. Such a fine‐control of reactivity through hydrogen‐bonding interactions by the distal ligand to bind, orient and activate H2O2 is very important for designing artificial enzymes with dramatic different and tunable reactivity from catalysts without protein scaffolds.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 4.1
ee: 50
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Peroxidase Activity of Cationic Metalloporphyrin-Antibody Complexes

Harada, A.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2004, 10, 6179-6186, 10.1002/chem.200305692

Peroxidase activity of a complex of water‐soluble cationic metalloporphyrin with anti‐cationic porphyrin antibody is reported. Antibody 12E11G, which was prepared by immunization with a conjugate of 5‐(4‐carboxyphenyl)‐10,15,20‐tris(4‐methylpyridyl)porphine iodide (3MPy1C), bound to tetramethylpyridylporphyrin iron complex (FeIII–TMPyP) with the dissociation constant of 2.6×10−7 M. The complex of antibody 12E11G with FeIII–TMPyP catalyzed oxidation of pyrogallol, catechol, and guaiacol. A Lineweaver–Burk plot for the oxidation of pyrogallol catalyzed by the FeIII–TMPyP–antibody complex showed Km=8.6 mM and kcat=680 min−1. Under the same conditions, Km and kcat for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were 0.8 mM and 1750 min−1, respectively. Although the binding interaction of the antibody to the substrates was one order lower than that of native HRP, the peroxidase activity of this system was in the same order of magnitude as that of HRP.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 12E11G
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Ring-Closing and Cross-Metathesis with Artificial Metalloenzymes Created by Covalent Active Site- Directed Hybridization of a Lipase

Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2015, 21, 15676-15685, 10.1002/chem.201502381

A series of Grubbs‐type catalysts that contain lipase‐inhibiting phosphoester functionalities have been synthesized and reacted with the lipase cutinase, which leads to artificial metalloenzymes for olefin metathesis. The resulting hybrids comprise the organometallic fragment that is covalently bound to the active amino acid residue of the enzyme host in an orthogonal orientation. Differences in reactivity as well as accessibility of the active site by the functionalized inhibitor became evident through variation of the anchoring motif and substituents on the N‐heterocyclic carbene ligand. Such observations led to the design of a hybrid that is active in the ring‐closing metathesis and the cross‐metathesis of N,N‐diallyl‐p‐toluenesulfonamide and allylbenzene, respectively, the latter being the first example of its kind in the field of artificial metalloenzymes.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: Cutinase
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 17
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: RCM

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: Cutinase
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 20
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross metathesis

Stereoselective Hydrogenation of Olefins Using Rhodium-Substituted Carbonic Anhydrase—A New Reductase

Kazlauskas, R.J.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2009, 15, 1370-1376, 10.1002/chem.200801673

One useful synthetic reaction missing from nature's toolbox is the direct hydrogenation of substrates using hydrogen. Instead nature uses cofactors like NADH to reduce organic substrates, which adds complexity and cost to these reductions. To create an enzyme that can directly reduce organic substrates with hydrogen, researchers have combined metal hydrogenation catalysts with proteins. One approach is an indirect link where a ligand is linked to a protein and the metal binds to the ligand. Another approach is direct linking of the metal to protein, but nonspecific binding of the metal limits this approach. Herein, we report a direct hydrogenation of olefins catalyzed by rhodium(I) bound to carbonic anhydrase (CA‐[Rh]). We minimized nonspecific binding of rhodium by replacing histidine residues on the protein surface using site‐directed mutagenesis or by chemically modifying the histidine residues. Hydrogenation catalyzed by CA‐[Rh] is slightly slower than for uncomplexed rhodium(I), but the protein environment induces stereoselectivity favoring cis‐ over trans‐stilbene by about 20:1. This enzyme is the first cofactor‐independent reductase that reduces organic molecules using hydrogen. This catalyst is a good starting point to create variants with tailored reactivity and selectivity. This strategy to insert transition metals in the active site of metalloenzymes opens opportunities to a wider range of enzyme‐catalyzed reactions.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 15.8
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 80.5
ee: ---
PDB: 4CAC
Notes: PDB ID 4CAC = Structure of Zn containing hCAII