Artificial Metalloenzymes as Catalysts for Oxidative Lignin Degradation
We report novel artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs), containing tris(pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA), for the atom economic oxidation of lignin β-O-4 model compounds, using hydrogen peroxide. The protein scaffold alters the selectivity of the reaction from a low yielding cleavage reaction when using the parent Fe-tpa complex to a high yielding benzylic alcohol oxidation when using the complex incorporated into a protein scaffold, SCP-2L A100C. Engineering the protein scaffold to incorporate glutamic acid was found to improve the ArM activity, showing that rational design of the protein environment using metal binding amino acids can be a first step toward improving the overall activity of an artificial metalloenzyme.
Metal: FeLigand type: Tris(pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA)Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimideOptimization: Chemical & geneticReaction: Lignin oxidationMax TON: 20ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: Reaction performed with a lignin model compound and hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent
Engineering Thermostability in Artificial Metalloenzymes to Increase Catalytic Activity
Protein engineering has shown widespread use in improving the industrial application of enzymes and broadening the conditions they are able to operate under by increasing their thermostability and solvent tolerance. Here, we show that protein engineering can be used to increase the thermostability of an artificial metalloenzyme. Thermostable variants of the human steroid carrier protein 2L, modified to bind a metal catalyst, were created by rational design using structural data and a 3DM database. These variants were tested to identify mutations that enhanced the stability of the protein scaffold, and a significant increase in melting temperature was observed with a number of modified metalloenzymes. The ability to withstand higher reaction temperatures resulted in an increased activity in the hydroformylation of 1-octene, with more than fivefold improvement in turnover number, whereas the selectivity for linear aldehyde remained high up to 80%.