20 publications

20 publications

Aqueous Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin–Avidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

J. Organomet. Chem. 2005, 690, 4488-4491, 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2005.02.001

Based on the incorporation of biotinylated organometallic catalyst precursors within (strept)avidin, we have developed artificial metalloenzymes for the oxidation of secondary alcohols using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidizing agent. In the presence of avidin as host protein, the biotinylated aminosulfonamide ruthenium piano stool complex 1 (0.4 mol%) catalyzes the oxidation of sec-phenethyl alcohol at room temperature within 90 h in over 90% yield. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the reaction mixture suggests that the host protein is not oxidatively degraded during catalysis.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 200
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 230
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Bipyridine; C6Me6
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 173
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 7.5
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Alcohol oxidation
Max TON: 30
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on Biotin-Avidin Technology for the Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones by Transfer Hydrogenation

Ward, T.R.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2005, 102, 4683-4687, 10.1073/pnas.0409684102

Most physiological and biotechnological processes rely on molecular recognition between chiral (handed) molecules. Manmade homogeneous catalysts and enzymes offer complementary means for producing enantiopure (single-handed) compounds. As the subtle details that govern chiral discrimination are difficult to predict, improving the performance of such catalysts often relies on trial-and-error procedures. Homogeneous catalysts are optimized by chemical modification of the chiral environment around the metal center. Enzymes can be improved by modification of gene encoding the protein. Incorporation of a biotinylated organometallic catalyst into a host protein (avidin or streptavidin) affords versatile artificial metalloenzymes for the reduction of ketones by transfer hydrogenation. The boric acid·formate mixture was identified as a hydrogen source compatible with these artificial metalloenzymes. A combined chemo-genetic procedure allows us to optimize the activity and selectivity of these hybrid catalysts: up to 94% (R) enantiomeric excess for the reduction of p-methylacetophenone. These artificial metalloenzymes display features reminiscent of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 92
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 30
ee: 63
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for the Diastereoselective Reduction of NAD+ to NAD2H

Ward, T.R.

Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015, 13, 357-360, 10.1039/c4ob02071e

Stereoselectively labelled isotopomers of NAD(P)H are highly relevant for mechanistic studies of enzymes which utilize them as redox equivalents.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin-(Strept)avidin Technology: Fine Tuning the Selectivity by Saturation Mutagenesis of the Host Protein

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 8320-8328, 10.1021/ja061580o

Incorporation of biotinylated racemic three-legged d6-piano stool complexes in streptavidin yields enantioselective transfer hydrogenation artificial metalloenzymes for the reduction of ketones. Having identified the most promising organometallic catalyst precursors in the presence of wild-type streptavidin, fine-tuning of the selectivity is achieved by saturation mutagenesis at position S112. This choice for the genetic optimization site is suggested by docking studies which reveal that this position lies closest to the biotinylated metal upon incorporation into streptavidin. For aromatic ketones, the reaction proceeds smoothly to afford the corresponding enantioenriched alcohols in up to 97% ee (R) or 70% (S). On the basis of these results, we suggest that the enantioselection is mostly dictated by CH/π interactions between the substrate and the η6-bound arene. However, these enantiodiscriminating interactions can be outweighed in the presence of cationic residues at position S112 to afford the opposite enantiomers of the product.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 96
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 73
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 95
ee: 70
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 79
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases for the Enantioselective Reduction of Cyclic Imines

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 3026-3029, 10.1002/anie.201007820

Man‐made activity: Introduction of a biotinylated iridium piano stool complex within streptavidin affords an artificial imine reductase (see scheme). Saturation mutagenesis allowed optimization of the activity and the enantioselectivity of this metalloenzyme, and its X‐ray structure suggests that a nearby lysine residue acts as a proton source during the transfer hydrogenation.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 4000
ee: 96
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 94
ee: 52
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 97
ee: 22
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 76
ee: 12
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Directed Evolution of an Artificial Imine Reductase

Maréchal, J.-D.; Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2018, 57, 1863-1868, 10.1002/anie.201711016

Artificial metalloenzymes, resulting from incorporation of a metal cofactor within a host protein, have received increasing attention in the last decade. The directed evolution is presented of an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) based on the biotin‐streptavidin technology using a straightforward procedure allowing screening in cell‐free extracts. Two streptavidin isoforms were yielded with improved catalytic activity and selectivity for the reduction of cyclic imines. The evolved ATHases were stable under biphasic catalytic conditions. The X‐ray structure analysis reveals that introducing bulky residues within the active site results in flexibility changes of the cofactor, thus increasing exposure of the metal to the protein surface and leading to a reversal of enantioselectivity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a multiscale approach based mostly on molecular dynamics and protein–ligand dockings.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 380
ee: 95
PDB: 6ESS
Notes: Salsolidine formation; Sav mutant S112A-N118P-K121A-S122M: (R)-selective

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 220
ee: 85
PDB: 6ESU
Notes: Salsolidine formation; Sav mutant S112R-N118P-K121A-S122M-L124Y: (S)-selective

Evaluation of Chemical Diversity of Biotinylated Chiral 1,3-Diamines as a Catalytic Moiety in Artificial Imine Reductase

Rimoldi, I.

ChemCatChem 2016, 8, 1665-1670, 10.1002/cctc.201600116

The possibility of obtaining an efficient artificial imine reductase was investigated by introducing a chiral cofactor into artificial metalloenzymes based on biotin–streptavidin technology. In particular, a chiral biotinylated 1,3‐diamine ligand in coordination with iridium(III) complex was developed. Optimized chemogenetic studies afforded positive results in the stereoselective reduction of a cyclic imine, the salsolidine precursor, as a standard substrate with access to both enantiomers. Various factors such as pH, temperature, number of binding sites, and steric hindrance of the catalytic moiety have been proved to affect both efficiency and enantioselectivity, underlining the great flexibility of this system in comparison with the achiral system. Computational studies were also performed to explain how the metal configuration, in the proposed system, might affect the observed stereochemical outcome.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >99
ee: 83
PDB: 3PK2
Notes: ---

Expanding the Chemical Diversity in Artificial Imine Reductases Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

ChemCatChem 2014, 6, 1010-1014, 10.1002/cctc.201300825

We report on the optimization of an artificial imine reductase based on the biotin‐streptavidin technology. With the aim of rapidly generating chemical diversity, a novel strategy for the formation and evaluation of biotinylated complexes is disclosed. Tethering the biotin‐anchor to the Cp* moiety leaves three free coordination sites on a d6 metal for the introduction of chemical diversity by coordination of a variety of ligands. To test the concept, 34 bidentate ligands were screened and a selection of the 6 best was tested in the presence of 21 streptavidin (Sav) isoforms for the asymmetric imine reduction by the resulting three legged piano stool complexes. Enantiopure α‐amino amides were identified as promising bidentate ligands: up to 63 % ee and 190 turnovers were obtained in the formation of 1‐phenyl‐1,2,3,4‐tetrahydroisoquinoline with [IrCp*biotin(L‐ThrNH2)Cl]⊂SavWT as a catalyst.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 188
ee: 43
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino carboxylic acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 4
ee: 21
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Diamine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 0
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 0
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Pyrazine amide
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 26
ee: 16
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 0
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 12
ee: 13
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Oxazoline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 102
ee: 14
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 94
ee: 67
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino amide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 10
ee: 7
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino carboxylic acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 8
ee: 1
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Diamine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 6
ee: 1
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 6
ee: 1
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Pyrazine amide
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 6
ee: 1
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 4
ee: 6
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 6
ee: 1
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Oxazoline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 8
ee: 0
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Ferritin Encapsulation of Artificial Metalloenzymes: Engineering a Tertiary Coordination Sphere for an Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase

Ward, T.R.

Dalton Trans. 2018, 47, 10837-10841, 10.1039/C8DT02224K

Ferritin, a naturally occuring iron-storage protein, plays an important role in nanoengineering and biomedical applications. Upon iron removal, apoferritin was shown to allow the encapsulation of an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) based on the streptavidin-biotin technology. The third coordination sphere, provided by ferritin, significantly influences the catalytic activity of an ATHase for the reduction of cyclic imines.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 3874
ee: 75
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Fluorescence-Based Assay for the Optimization of the Activity of Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase within a Biocompatible Compartment

Ward, T.R.

ChemCatChem 2013, 5, 720-723, 10.1002/cctc.201200834

The time capsules: The transfer hydrogenation of an enone‐bound fluorogenic compound by an artificial metalloenzyme leads to the release of fluorescent compound umbelliferone. Upon encapsulation of the hybrid catalyst inside a biocompatible compartment, the activity of the transfer hydrogenase is maintained for several months, even at micromolar concentrations.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Genetic Engineering of an Artificial Metalloenzyme for Transfer Hydrogenation of a Self-Immolative Substrate in Escherichia coli’s Periplasm

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 13171-13175, 10.1021/jacs.8b07189

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs), which combine an abiotic metal cofactor with a protein scaffold, catalyze various synthetically useful transformations. To complement the natural enzymes’ repertoire, effective optimization protocols to improve ArM’s performance are required. Here we report on our efforts to optimize the activity of an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) using Escherichia coli whole cells. For this purpose, we rely on a self-immolative quinolinium substrate which, upon reduction, releases fluorescent umbelliferone, thus allowing efficient screening. Introduction of a loop in the immediate proximity of the Ir-cofactor afforded an ArM with up to 5-fold increase in transfer hydrogenation activity compared to the wild-type ATHase using purified mutants.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1000
ee: 76
PDB: 6GMI
Notes: ---

Genetic Optimization of the Catalytic Efficiency of Artificial Imine Reductases Based on Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 1752-1755, 10.1021/cs400428r

Artificial metalloenzymes enable the engineering of the reaction microenvironment of the active metal catalyst by modification of the surrounding host protein. We report herein the optimization of an artificial imine reductase (ATHase) based on biotin–streptavidin technology. By introduction of lipophilic amino acid residues around the active site, an 8-fold increase in catalytic efficiency compared with the wild type imine reductase was achieved. Whereas substrate inhibition was encountered for the free cofactor and wild type ATHase, two engineered systems exhibited classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics, even at substrate concentrations of 150 mM with measured rates up to 20 min–1.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

High-Level Secretion of Recombinant Full-Length Streptavidin in Pichia Pastoris and its Application to Enantioselective Catalysis

Jaussi, R.

Protein Expression Purif. 2014, 93, 54-62, 10.1016/j.pep.2013.10.015

Artificial metalloenzymes result from the incorporation of a catalytically competent biotinylated organometallic moiety into full-length (i.e. mature) streptavidin. With large-scale industrial biotechnology applications in mind, large quantities of recombinant streptavidin are required. Herein we report our efforts to produce wild-type mature and biotin-free streptavidin using the yeast Pichia pastoris expression system. The streptavidin gene was inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA in frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor secretion signal. In a fed-batch fermentation using a minimal medium supplemented with trace amounts of biotin, functional streptavidin was secreted at approximately 650 mg/L of culture supernatant. This yield is approximately threefold higher than that from Escherichia coli, and although the overall expression process takes longer (ten days vs. two days), the downstream processing is simplified by eliminating denaturing/refolding steps. The purified streptavidin bound ∼3.2 molecules of biotin per tetramer. Upon incorporation of a biotinylated piano-stool catalyst, the secreted streptavidin displayed identical properties to streptavidin produced in E. coli by showing activity as artificial imine reductase.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 152
ee: 61
PDB: ---
Notes: Sav expression in E. coli

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 158
ee: 64
PDB: ---
Notes: Sav expression in P. pastoris

Human Carbonic Anhydrase II as Host Protein for the Creation of Artificial Metalloenzymes: The Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 3269, 10.1039/c3sc51065d

In the presence of human carbonic anhydrase II, aryl-sulfonamide-bearing IrCp* pianostool complexes catalyze the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines. Critical cofactor–protein interactions revealed by the X-ray structure of [(η5-Cp*)Ir(pico 4)Cl] 9 ⊂ WT hCA II were genetically optimized to improve the catalytic performance of the artificial metalloenzyme (68% ee, kcat/KM 6.11 × 10−3 min−1 mM−1).


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 47
ee: 70
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Immobilization of an Artificial Imine Reductase Within Silica Nanoparticles Improves its Performance

Shahgaldian, P.; Ward, T.R.

Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 9462-9465, 10.1039/c6cc04604e

Silica nanoparticles equipped with an artificial imine reductase display remarkable activity towards cyclic imine- and NAD+ reduction. The method, based on immobilization and protection of streptavidin on silica nanoparticles, shields the biotinylated metal cofactor against deactivation yielding over 46 000 turnovers in pure samples and 4000 turnovers in crude cellular extracts.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 4554
ee: 89
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction in nanoparticles

Improving the Enantioselectivity of Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin–Streptavidin Technology by Combinations of Point Mutations

Ward, T.R.

Inorg. Chim. Acta 2010, 363, 601-604, 10.1016/j.ica.2009.02.001

Artificial metalloenzymes based on the incorporation of biotinylated ruthenium piano–stool complexes within streptavidin can be readily optimized by chemical or genetic means. We performed genetic modifications of such artificial metalloenzymes for the transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones, by combining targeted point mutations of the host protein. Upon using the P64G-L124V double mutant of streptavidin in combination with the [η6-(p-cymene)Ru(Biot-p-L)Cl] complex, the enantioselectivity can be increased up to 98% ee (R) for the reduction of p-methylacetophenone, which is the highest selectivity obtained up to date with an artificial transfer hydrogenase.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 98
ee: 98
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 24
ee: 84
PDB: 2QCB
Notes: ---

Neutralizing the Detrimental Effect of Glutathione on Precious Metal Catalysts

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 8928-8932, 10.1021/ja500613n

We report our efforts to enable transition-metal catalysis in the presence of cellular debris, notably Escherichia coli cell free extracts and cell lysates. This challenging goal is hampered by the presence of thiols, mainly present in the form of glutathione (GSH), which poison precious metal catalysts. To overcome this, we evaluated a selection of oxidizing agents and electrophiles toward their potential to neutralize the detrimental effect of GSH on a Ir-based transfer hydrogenation catalyst. While the bare catalyst was severely inhibited by cellular debris, embedding the organometallic moiety within a host protein led to promising results in the presence of some neutralizing agents. In view of its complementary to natural enzymes, the asymmetric imine reductase based on the incorporation of a biotinylated iridium pianostool complex within streptavidin (Sav) isoforms was selected as a model reaction. Compared to purified protein samples, we show that pretreatment of cell free extracts and cell lysates containing Sav mutants with diamide affords up to >100 TON’s and only a modest erosion of enantioselectivity.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 98
ee: 85
PDB: ---
Notes: Reaction in cell-free extract with diamide

Structural, Kinetic, and Docking Studies of Artificial Imine Reductases Based on Biotin−Streptavidin Technology: An Induced Lock-and-Key Hypothesis

Maréchal, J.-D.; Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 15676-15683, 10.1021/ja508258t

An artificial imine reductase results upon incorporation of a biotinylated Cp*Ir moiety (Cp* = C5Me5–) within homotetrameric streptavidin (Sav) (referred to as Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ Sav). Mutation of S112 reveals a marked effect of the Ir/streptavidin ratio on both the saturation kinetics as well as the enantioselectivity for the production of salsolidine. For [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112A Sav, both the reaction rate and the selectivity (up to 96% ee (R)-salsolidine, kcat 14–4 min–1 vs [Ir], KM 65–370 mM) decrease upon fully saturating all biotin binding sites (the ee varying between 96% ee and 45% ee R). In contrast, for [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112K Sav, both the rate and the selectivity remain nearly constant upon varying the Ir/streptavidin ratio [up to 78% ee (S)-salsolidine, kcat 2.6 min–1, KM 95 mM]. X-ray analysis complemented with docking studies highlight a marked preference of the S112A and S112K Sav mutants for the SIr and RIr enantiomeric forms of the cofactor, respectively. Combining both docking and saturation kinetic studies led to the formulation of an enantioselection mechanism relying on an “induced lock-and-key” hypothesis: the host protein dictates the configuration of the biotinylated Ir-cofactor which, in turn, by and large determines the enantioselectivity of the imine reductase.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: 93
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Synthetic Cascades are Enabled by Combining Biocatalysts with Artificial Metalloenzymes

Turner, N.J.; Ward, T.R.

Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 93-99, 10.1038/NCHEM.1498

Enzymatic catalysis and homogeneous catalysis offer complementary means to address synthetic challenges, both in chemistry and in biology. Despite its attractiveness, the implementation of concurrent cascade reactions that combine an organometallic catalyst with an enzyme has proven challenging because of the mutual inactivation of both catalysts. To address this, we show that incorporation of a d6-piano stool complex within a host protein affords an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) that is fully compatible with and complementary to natural enzymes, thus enabling efficient concurrent tandem catalysis. To illustrate the generality of the approach, the ATHase was combined with various NADH-, FAD- and haem-dependent enzymes, resulting in orthogonal redox cascades. Up to three enzymes were integrated in the cascade and combined with the ATHase with a view to achieving (i) a double stereoselective amine deracemization, (ii) a horseradish peroxidase-coupled readout of the transfer hydrogenase activity towards its genetic optimization, (iii) the formation of L-pipecolic acid from L-lysine and (iv) regeneration of NADH to promote a monooxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalization reaction.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: > 99
PDB: ---
Notes: Cascade

X-Ray Structure and Designed Evolution of an Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase

Ward, T.R.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1400-1404, 10.1002/anie.200704865

A structure is worth a thousand words: Guided by the X‐ray structure of an S‐selective artificial transfer hydrogenase, designed evolution was used to optimize the selectivity of hybrid catalysts. Fine‐tuning of the second coordination sphere of the ruthenium center (see picture, orange sphere) by introduction of two point mutations allowed the identification of selective artificial transfer hydrogenases for the reduction of dialkyl ketones.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: 92
PDB: 2QCB
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 97
ee: 96
PDB: 2QCB
Notes: ---