10 publications

10 publications

A Noncanonical Proximal Heme Ligand Affords an Efficient Peroxidase in a Globin Fold

Green, A.P.; Hilvert, D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 1535-1543, 10.1021/jacs.7b12621

Expanding the range of genetically encoded metal coordination environments accessible within tunable protein scaffolds presents excellent opportunities for the creation of metalloenzymes with augmented properties and novel activities. Here, we demonstrate that installation of a noncanonical Nδ-methyl histidine (NMH) as the proximal heme ligand in the oxygen binding protein myoglobin (Mb) leads to substantial increases in heme redox potential and promiscuous peroxidase activity. Structural characterization of this catalytically modified myoglobin variant (Mb NMH) revealed significant changes in the proximal pocket, including alterations to hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the prosthetic porphyrin cofactor. Further optimization of Mb NMH via a combination of rational modification and several rounds of laboratory evolution afforded efficient peroxidase biocatalysts within a globin fold, with activities comparable to those displayed by nature’s peroxidases.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ~1650
ee: ---
PDB: 5OJ9
Notes: Oxidation of amplex red

Artificial Heme Enzymes for the Construction of Gold-Based Biomaterials

Lombardi, A.; Nastri, F.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2896, 10.3390/ijms19102896

Many efforts are continuously devoted to the construction of hybrid biomaterials for specific applications, by immobilizing enzymes on different types of surfaces and/or nanomaterials. In addition, advances in computational, molecular and structural biology have led to a variety of strategies for designing and engineering artificial enzymes with defined catalytic properties. Here, we report the conjugation of an artificial heme enzyme (MIMO) with lipoic acid (LA) as a building block for the development of gold-based biomaterials. We show that the artificial MIMO@LA can be successfully conjugated to gold nanoparticles or immobilized onto gold electrode surfaces, displaying quasi-reversible redox properties and peroxidase activity. The results of this work open interesting perspectives toward the development of new totally-synthetic catalytic biomaterials for application in biotechnology and biomedicine, expanding the range of the biomolecular component aside from traditional native enzymes.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Immobilization of the ArM on gold surfaces via a lipoic acid anchor.

Autoxidation of Ascorbic Acid Catalyzed by a Semisynthetic Enzyme

Kaiser, E.T.

Biopolymers 1990, 29, 39-43, 10.1002/bip.360290107

The semisyntehtic enzyme 6 was prepared by alkylation of the cysteine‐25 sulfhydryl group of papain with the bipyridine 5 and was shown to stoichiometrically bind copper ion; 7 catalyzed the autoxidation of ascorbic acid derivatives with saturation kinetics approximately 20‐fold faster than a model system using 3‐Cu(II).


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Building Reactive Copper Centers in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

Emerson, J.P.

J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 18, 595-598, 10.1007/s00775-013-1009-1

Reengineering metalloproteins to generate new biologically relevant metal centers is an effective a way to test our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that steer chemical transformations in biological systems. Here, we report thermodynamic data characterizing the formation of two type-2 copper sites in carbonic anhydrase and experimental evidence showing one of these new, copper centers has characteristics similar to a variety of well-characterized copper centers in synthetic models and enzymatic systems. Human carbonic anhydrase II is known to bind two Cu2+ ions; these binding events were explored using modern isothermal titration calorimetry techniques that have become a proven method to accurately measure metal-binding thermodynamic parameters. The two Cu2+-binding events have different affinities (K a approximately 5 × 1012 and 1 × 1010), and both are enthalpically driven processes. Reconstituting these Cu2+ sites under a range of conditions has allowed us to assign the Cu2+-binding event to the three-histidine, native, metal-binding site. Our initial efforts to characterize these Cu2+ sites have yielded data that show distinctive (and noncoupled) EPR signals associated with each copper-binding site and that this reconstituted enzyme can activate hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the oxidation of 2-aminophenol.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1RZC
Notes: Oxidation of 2-aminophenol with subsequent formation of 2-aminophenoxazinone. Reaction rate = 0.09 s-1

Construction and In Vivo Assembly of a Catalytically Proficient and Hyperthermostable De Novo Enzyme

Anderson, J.L.R.

Nat. Commun. 2017, 8, 10.1038/s41467-017-00541-4

Although catalytic mechanisms in natural enzymes are well understood, achieving the diverse palette of reaction chemistries in re-engineered native proteins has proved challenging. Wholesale modification of natural enzymes is potentially compromised by their intrinsic complexity, which often obscures the underlying principles governing biocatalytic efficiency. The maquette approach can circumvent this complexity by combining a robust de novo designed chassis with a design process that avoids atomistic mimicry of natural proteins. Here, we apply this method to the construction of a highly efficient, promiscuous, and thermostable artificial enzyme that catalyzes a diverse array of substrate oxidations coupled to the reduction of H2O2. The maquette exhibits kinetics that match and even surpass those of certain natural peroxidases, retains its activity at elevated temperature and in the presence of organic solvents, and provides a simple platform for interrogating catalytic intermediates common to natural heme-containing enzymes.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)

De Novo Design of Four-Helix Bundle Metalloproteins: One Scaffold, Diverse Reactivities

DeGrado, W.F.

Acc. Chem. Res. 2019, 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00674

De novo protein design represents anattractive approach for testing and extending our under-standing of metalloprotein structure and function. Here, we describe our work on the design of DF (Due Ferri or two-ironin Italian), a minimalist model for the active sites of muchlarger and more complex natural diiron and dimanganeseproteins. In nature, diiron and dimanganese proteins protypi-cally bind their ions in 4-Glu, 2-His environments, and theycatalyze diverse reactions, ranging from hydrolysis, to O2-dependent chemistry, to decarbonylation of aldehydes. In the design of DF, the position of each atom including the backbone, the first-shell ligands, the second-shell hydrogen-bonded groups, and the well-packed hydrophobic core was bespoke using precise mathematical equations and chemical principles. The first member of the DF family was designed to be of minimal size and complexity and yet to display the quintessential elements required for binding the dimetal cofactor. After thoroughly characterizing its structural, dynamic, spectroscopic, and functional properties, we added additional complexity in a rational stepwise manner to achieve increasingly sophisticated catalytic functions, ultimately demonstrating substrate-gated four-electron reduction of O2to water. We also briefly describe the extension of these studies to the design of proteins that bind non biological metal cofactors (a synthetic porphyrin and a tetranuclear cluster), and a Zn2+/proton antiporting membrane protein. Together these studies demonstrate a successful and generally applicable strategy for de novo metalloprotein design, which might indeed mimic the process by which primordial metalloproteins evolved. We began the design process with a highly symmetrical backbone and binding site, by using point-group symmetry to assemble the secondary structures that position the amino acid side chains required for binding. The resulting models provided a rough starting point and initial parameters for the subsequent precise design of thefinal protein using modern methods of computational protein design. Unless the desired site is itself symmetrical, this process requires reduction of the symmetry or lifting it altogether. Nevertheless, the initial symmetrical structure can be helpful to restrain the search space during assembly of the backbone. Finally, the methods described here should be generally applicable to the design of highly stable and robust catalysts and sensors. There is considerable potential in combining the efficiency and knowledge base associated with homogeneous metal catalysis with the programmability, biocompatibility, and versatility of proteins. While the work reported here focuses on testing and learning the principles of natural metalloproteins by designing and studying proteins one at a time, there is also considerable potential for using designed proteins that incorporate both biological and non biological metal ion cofactors for the evolution of novel catalysts.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Due Ferri
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Computational design
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1EC5
Notes: Additional PDB: 1LT1

Metal Incorporated Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) Catalyzed Oxidation of Resveratrol: Selective Dimerization or Decomposition

Pan, Y.

RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 22976, 10.1039/c3ra43784a

Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially available and prevalently used peroxidase with no specific substrate binding domain. However, after being incorporated with different metal cations, new catalytic functions were found in biomimetic oxidation of resveratrol. Based on the results of screening, Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn incorporated enzymes showed distinctive effects, either decomposition or dimerization products were observed.


Metal: Ca; Co; Mn; Ni; Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of resveratrol. Dimerisation product obtained.

Multifunctional Nanoenzymes from Carbonic Anhydrase Skeleton

Yilmaz, F.

Process Biochem. 2018, 72, 71-78, 10.1016/j.procbio.2018.06.005

Carbonic anhydrase (carbonic dehydratase) (CA) is a metalloenzyme that contains zinc (Zn2+) ion in its active site. CA catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. Zn2+ ions, which are present in the active site of the enzyme, interact with the substrate molecules directly and cause catalytic effect. In this study, a nano-enzyme system was designed in aqueous solutions at room temperature and under nitrogen atmosphere to use the CA enzyme without any pre-treatment and deformation in its structure. The novel concept ANADOLUCA (AmiNo Acid (monomer) Decorated and Light Underpinning Conjugation Approach) was used for this process, nano CA enzyme of size 93 nm was synthesized. The activity of the synthesized nano CA was measured following the change in absorbance during the conversion of 4-nitrophenylacetate (NPA) to 4-nitrophenylate ion at 348 nm for a period of 10 min at 25 °C compared with free CA enzyme. Km and Vmax values for nano CA enzyme were found to be 0.442 mM and 1.6 × 10−3 mM min-1, respectively, whereas Km and Vmax values for free CA were found to be 0.471 mM and 1.5 × 10−3 mM min-1, respectively. In addition to these, the Zn2+ ion present in the active site of the nano CA enzyme was replaced by rodium metal. This nanorodium-substituted CA has been investigated as a new reductase enzyme for the stereoselective hydrogenation of olefins. Then, the Zn2+ ion in the active site of the nano CA enzyme was replaced with manganese metal to enhance the enzyme structure, thereby gaining characteristics of peroxidase. This newly synthesized nano manganese-substituted CA enzyme was investigated for its role as a peroxidase, which could be an alternative for hydrogen peroxidases.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrolysis
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate.

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydration
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Hydration of styrene.

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Oxidation of styrene.

Peroxide Activation Regulated by Hydrogen Bonds within Artificial Cu Proteins

Borovik, A.S.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 17289-17292, 10.1021/jacs.7b10452

Copper–hydroperoxido species (CuII–OOH) have been proposed to be key intermediates in biological and synthetic oxidations. Using biotin–streptavidin (Sav) technology, artificial copper proteins have been developed to stabilize a CuII–OOH complex in solution and in crystallo. Stability is achieved because the Sav host provides a local environment around the Cu–OOH that includes a network of hydrogen bonds to the hydroperoxido ligand. Systematic deletions of individual hydrogen bonds to the Cu–OOH complex were accomplished using different Sav variants and demonstrated that stability is achieved with a single hydrogen bond to the proximal O-atom of the hydroperoxido ligand: changing this interaction to only include the distal O-atom produced a reactive variant that oxidized an external substrate.


Metal: Cu
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 6ANX
Notes: ---

Studies on the Oxidase Activity of Copper (II) Carboxypeptidase A

Kaiser, E.T.

J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1976, 830, 10.1039/C39760000830

Copper(II) carboxypeptidase A catalyses the oxidation of ascorbic acid and this reaction is inhibited by α-benzylsuccinate, a known inhibitor of the thiolesterase action of the copper enzyme; the pH dependencies of kcat and kcat/Km are similar near pH 7 to those seen for the peptidase and esterase activities of native carboxypeptidase A.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carboxypeptidase A
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of vitamin C