Controlled Ligand Exchange Between Ruthenium Organometallic Cofactor Precursors and a Naïve Protein Scaffold Generates Artificial Metalloenzymes Catalysing Transfer Hydrogenation
Many natural metalloenzymes assemble from proteins and biosynthesised complexes, generating potent catalysts by changing metal coordination. Here we adopt the same strategy to generate artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) using ligand exchange to unmask catalytic activity. By systematically testing RuII(η6-arene)(bipyridine) complexes designed to facilitate the displacement of functionalised bipyridines, we develop a fast and robust procedure for generating new enzymes via ligand exchange in a protein that has not evolved to bind such a complex. The resulting metal cofactors form peptidic coordination bonds but also retain a non-biological ligand. Tandem mass spectrometry and 19F NMR spectroscopy were used to characterise the organometallic cofactors and identify the protein-derived ligands. By introduction of ruthenium cofactors into a 4-helical bundle, transfer hydrogenation catalysts were generated that displayed a 35-fold rate increase when compared to the respective small molecule reaction in solution.
Metal: RuHost protein: Cytochrome b562Anchoring strategy: DativeOptimization: ---Reaction: Transfer hydrogenationMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: 35 fold rate increase
Unlocking the Full Evolutionary Potential of Artificial Metalloenzymes Through Direct Metal-Protein Coordination : A review of recent advances for catalyst developmentReview
Generation of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) has gained much inspiration from the general understanding of natural metalloenzymes. Over the last decade, a multitude of methods generating transition metal-protein hybrids have been developed and many of these new-to-nature constructs catalyse reactions previously reserved for the realm of synthetic chemistry. This perspective will focus on ArMs incorporating 4d and 5d transition metals. It aims to summarise the significant advances made to date and asks whether there are chemical strategies, used in nature to optimise metal catalysts, that have yet to be fully recognised in the synthetic enzyme world, particularly whether artificial enzymes produced to date fully take advantage of the structural and energetic context provided by the protein. Further, the argument is put forward that, based on precedence, in the majority of naturally evolved metalloenzymes the direct coordination bonding between the metal and the protein scaffold is integral to catalysis. Therefore, the protein can attenuate metal activity by positioning ligand atoms in the form of amino acids, as well as making non-covalent contributions to catalysis, through intermolecular interactions that pre-organise substrates and stabilise transition states. This highlights the often neglected but crucial element of natural systems that is the energetic contribution towards activating metal centres through protein fold energy. Finally, general principles needed for a different approach to the formation of ArMs are set out, utilising direct coordination inspired by the activation of an organometallic cofactor upon protein binding. This methodology, observed in nature, delivers true interdependence between metal and protein. When combined with the ability to efficiently evolve enzymes, new problems in catalysis could be addressed in a faster and more specific manner than with simpler small molecule catalysts.