52 publications

52 publications

A Designed Metalloenzyme Achieving the Catalytic Rate of a Native Enzyme

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 11570-11573, 10.1021/jacs.5b07119

Terminal oxidases catalyze four-electron reduction of oxygen to water, and the energy harvested is utilized to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. While much effort has been made to design a catalyst mimicking the function of terminal oxidases, most biomimetic catalysts have much lower activity than native oxidases. Herein we report a designed oxidase in myoglobin with an O2 reduction rate (52 s–1) comparable to that of a native cytochrome (cyt) cbb3 oxidase (50 s–1) under identical conditions. We achieved this goal by engineering more favorable electrostatic interactions between a functional oxidase model designed in sperm whale myoglobin and its native redox partner, cyt b5, resulting in a 400-fold electron transfer (ET) rate enhancement. Achieving high activity equivalent to that of native enzymes in a designed metalloenzyme offers deeper insight into the roles of tunable processes such as ET in oxidase activity and enzymatic function and may extend into applications such as more efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for biofuel cells.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: O2 reduction rates of 52 s-1 were achieved in combination with the native redox partner cyt b5.

A Dual Anchoring Strategy for the Localization and Activation of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5384-5388, 10.1021/ja309974s

Artificial metalloenzymes result from anchoring an active catalyst within a protein environment. Toward this goal, various localization strategies have been pursued: covalent, supramolecular, or dative anchoring. Herein we show that introduction of a suitably positioned histidine residue contributes to firmly anchor, via a dative bond, a biotinylated rhodium piano stool complex within streptavidin. The in silico design of the artificial metalloenzyme was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme displays significantly improved catalytic performance, both in terms of activity and selectivity in the transfer hydrogenation of imines. Depending on the position of the histidine residue, both enantiomers of the salsolidine product can be obtained.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 14
ee: 11
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: 79
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Highly Specific Metal-Activated Catalytic Antibody

Janda, K.D.; Lerner, R.A.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 4906-4907, 10.1021/ja00064a068

n/a


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: IgG 84A3
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Albumin-Conjugated Corrole Metal Complexes: Extremely Simple Yet Very Efficient Biomimetic Oxidation Systems

Gross, Z.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 2883-2887, 10.1021/ja045372c

An extremely simple biomimetic oxidation system, consisting of mixing metal complexes of amphiphilic corroles with serum albumins, utilizes hydrogen peroxide for asymmetric sulfoxidation in up to 74% ee. The albumin-conjugated manganese corroles also display catalase-like activity, and mechanistic evidence points toward oxidant-coordinated manganese(III) as the prime reaction intermediate.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Corrole
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 8
ee: 74
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Corrole
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 42
ee: 52
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

An NAD(P)H-Dependent Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase for Multienzymatic Cascades

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 5781-5784, 10.1021/jacs.6b02470

Enzymes typically depend on either NAD(P)H or FADH2 as hydride source for reduction purposes. In contrast, organometallic catalysts most often rely on isopropanol or formate to generate the reactive hydride moiety. Here we show that incorporation of a Cp*Ir cofactor possessing a biotin moiety and 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline into streptavidin yields an NAD(P)H-dependent artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase). This ATHase (0.1 mol%) catalyzes imine reduction with 1 mM NADPH (2 mol%), which can be concurrently regenerated by a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) using only 1.2 equiv of glucose. A four-enzyme cascade consisting of the ATHase, the GDH, a monoamine oxidase, and a catalase leads to the production of enantiopure amines.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >999
ee: >99
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Noncanonical Proximal Heme Ligand Affords an Efficient Peroxidase in a Globin Fold

Green, A.P.; Hilvert, D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 1535-1543, 10.1021/jacs.7b12621

Expanding the range of genetically encoded metal coordination environments accessible within tunable protein scaffolds presents excellent opportunities for the creation of metalloenzymes with augmented properties and novel activities. Here, we demonstrate that installation of a noncanonical Nδ-methyl histidine (NMH) as the proximal heme ligand in the oxygen binding protein myoglobin (Mb) leads to substantial increases in heme redox potential and promiscuous peroxidase activity. Structural characterization of this catalytically modified myoglobin variant (Mb NMH) revealed significant changes in the proximal pocket, including alterations to hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the prosthetic porphyrin cofactor. Further optimization of Mb NMH via a combination of rational modification and several rounds of laboratory evolution afforded efficient peroxidase biocatalysts within a globin fold, with activities comparable to those displayed by nature’s peroxidases.


Metal: Fe
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ~1650
ee: ---
PDB: 5OJ9
Notes: Oxidation of amplex red

Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes

Keinan, E.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 8978-8982, 10.1021/ja990314q

An antibody−metalloporphyrin assembly that catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides to sulfoxides is presented. Antibody SN37.4 was elicited against a water-soluble tin(IV) porphyrin containing an axial α-naphthoxy ligand. The catalytic assembly comprising antibody SN37.4 and a ruthenium(II) porphyrin cofactor exhibited typical enzyme characteristics, such as predetermined oxidant and substrate selectivity, enantioselective delivery of oxygen to the substrate, and Michaelis−Menten saturation kinetics. This assembly, which promotes a complex, multistep catalytic event, represents a close model of natural heme-dependent oxidation enzymes.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody SN37.4
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 750
ee: 43
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzyme for Enantioselective Sulfoxidation Based on Vanadyl-Loaded Streptavidin

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8085-8088, 10.1021/ja8017219

Nature’s catalysts are specifically evolved to carry out efficient and selective reactions. Recent developments in biotechnology have allowed the rapid optimization of existing enzymes for enantioselective processes. However, the ex nihilo creation of catalytic activity from a noncatalytic protein scaffold remains very challenging. Herein, we describe the creation of an artificial enzyme upon incorporation of a vanadyl ion into the biotin-binding pocket of streptavidin, a protein devoid of catalytic activity. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides with good enantioselectivities both for dialkyl and alkyl-aryl substrates (up to 93% enantiomeric excess). Electron paragmagnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical modification, and mutagenesis studies suggest that the vanadyl ion is located within the biotin-binding pocket and interacts only via second coordination sphere contacts with streptavidin.


Metal: V
Ligand type: Water
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 27
ee: 93
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes for Enantioselective Catalysis Based on Biotin-Avidin

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9030-9031, 10.1021/ja035545i

Homogeneous and enzymatic catalysis offer complementary means to generate enantiomerically pure compounds. Incorporation of achiral biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes into (strept)avidin yields artificial metalloenzymes for the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to produce (R)-acetamidoalanine with 96% enantioselectivity. These hybrid catalysts display features reminiscent both of enzymatic and of homogeneous systems.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 96
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes: (Strept)avidin as Host for Enantioselective Hydrogenation by Achiral Biotinylated Rhodium-Diphosphine Complexes

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 14411-14418, 10.1021/ja0476718

We report on the generation of artificial metalloenzymes based on the noncovalent incorporation of biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes in (strept)avidin as host proteins. A chemogenetic optimization procedure allows one to optimize the enantioselectivity for the reduction of acetamidoacrylic acid (up to 96% ee (R) in streptavidin S112G and up to 80% ee (S) in WT avidin). The association constant between a prototypical cationic biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine catalyst precursor and the host proteins was determined at neutral pH:  log Ka = 7.7 for avidin (pI = 10.4) and log Ka = 7.1 for streptavidin (pI = 6.4). It is shown that the optimal operating conditions for the enantioselective reduction are 5 bar at 30 °C with a 1% catalyst loading.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: ---
ee: 94
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloproteins Containing Co4O4 Cubane Active Sites

Borovik, A.S.; Don Tilley, T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 2739-2742, 10.1021/jacs.7b13052

Artificial metalloproteins (ArMs) containing Co4O4 cubane active sites were constructed via biotin–streptavidin technology. Stabilized by hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), terminal and cofacial CoIII–OH2 moieties are observed crystallographically in a series of immobilized cubane sites. Solution electrochemistry provided correlations of oxidation potential and pH. For variants containing Ser and Phe adjacent to the metallocofactor, 1e–/1H+ chemistry predominates until pH 8, above which the oxidation becomes pH-independent. Installation of Tyr proximal to the Co4O4 active site provided a single H-bond to one of a set of cofacial CoIII–OH2 groups. With this variant, multi-e–/multi-H+ chemistry is observed, along with a change in mechanism at pH 9.5 that is consistent with Tyr deprotonation. With structural similarities to both the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (H-bonded Tyr) and to thin film water oxidation catalysts (Co4O4 core), these findings bridge synthetic and biological systems for water oxidation, highlighting the importance of secondary sphere interactions in mediating multi-e–/multi-H+ reactivity.


Metal: Co
Ligand type: OAc; Pyridine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 6AUC
Notes: Co-complex in Sav WT

Metal: Co
Ligand type: OAc; Pyridine
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 6AUE
Notes: Co-complex in Sav S112Y

Artificial Transfer Hydrogenases Based on the Biotin-(Strept)avidin Technology: Fine Tuning the Selectivity by Saturation Mutagenesis of the Host Protein

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 8320-8328, 10.1021/ja061580o

Incorporation of biotinylated racemic three-legged d6-piano stool complexes in streptavidin yields enantioselective transfer hydrogenation artificial metalloenzymes for the reduction of ketones. Having identified the most promising organometallic catalyst precursors in the presence of wild-type streptavidin, fine-tuning of the selectivity is achieved by saturation mutagenesis at position S112. This choice for the genetic optimization site is suggested by docking studies which reveal that this position lies closest to the biotinylated metal upon incorporation into streptavidin. For aromatic ketones, the reaction proceeds smoothly to afford the corresponding enantioenriched alcohols in up to 97% ee (R) or 70% (S). On the basis of these results, we suggest that the enantioselection is mostly dictated by CH/π interactions between the substrate and the η6-bound arene. However, these enantiodiscriminating interactions can be outweighed in the presence of cationic residues at position S112 to afford the opposite enantiomers of the product.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 96
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 73
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Benzene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 95
ee: 70
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; P-cymene
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 79
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Semisynthetic Metalloenzyme based on a Protein Cavity that Catalyzes the Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Ester and Amide Substrates

Distefano, M.D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11643-11652, 10.1021/JA970820K

In an effort to prepare selective and efficient catalysts for ester and amide hydrolysis, we are designing systems that position a coordinated metal ion within a defined protein cavity. Here, the preparation of a protein-1,10-phenanthroline conjugate and the hydrolytic chemistry catalyzed by this construct are described. Iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline was used to modify a unique cysteine residue in ALBP (adipocyte lipid binding protein) to produce the conjugate ALBP-Phen. The resulting material was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry, UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography, and thiol titration. The stability of ALBP-Phen was evaluated by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation experiments, and the ability of the conjugate to bind Cu(II) was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) catalyzes the enantioselective hydrolysis of several unactivated amino acid esters under mild conditions (pH 6.1, 25 °C) at rates 32−280-fold above the background rate in buffered aqueous solution. In 24 h incubations 0.70 to 7.6 turnovers were observed with enantiomeric excesses ranging from 31% ee to 86% ee. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) also promotes the hydrolysis of an aryl amide substrate under more vigorous conditions (pH 6.1, 37 °C) at a rate 1.6 × 104-fold above the background rate. The kinetics of this amide hydrolysis reaction fit the Michaelis−Menten relationship characteristic of enzymatic processes. The rate enhancements for ester and amide hydrolysis reported here are 102−103 lower than those observed for free Cu(II) but comparable to those previously reported for Cu(II) complexes.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 1 to 8
ee: 39 to 86
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Site-Selective Dual Anchoring Strategy for Artificial Metalloprotein Design

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 10812-10813, 10.1021/ja046908x

Introducing nonnative metal ions or metal-containing prosthetic groups into a protein can dramatically expand the repertoire of its functionalities and thus its range of applications. Particularly challenging is the control of substrate-binding and thus reaction selectivity such as enantioselectivity. To meet this challenge, both non-covalent and single-point attachments of metal complexes have been demonstrated previously. Since the protein template did not evolve to bind artificial metal complexes tightly in a single conformation, efforts to restrict conformational freedom by modifying the metal complexes and/or the protein are required to achieve high enantioselectivity using the above two strategies. Here we report a novel site-selective dual anchoring (two-point covalent attachment) strategy to introduce an achiral manganese salen complex (Mn(salen)), into apo sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) with bioconjugation yield close to 100%. The enantioselective excess increases from 0.3% for non-covalent, to 12.3% for single point, and to 51.3% for dual anchoring attachments. The dual anchoring method has the advantage of restricting the conformational freedom of the metal complex in the protein and can be generally applied to protein incorporation of other metal complexes with minimal structural modification to either the metal complex or the protein.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 3.9
ee: 51
PDB: 1MBO
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Asymmetric δ-Lactam Synthesis with a Monomeric Streptavidin Artificial Metalloenzyme

McNaughton, B.R.; Rovis, T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 4815-4819, 10.1021/jacs.9b01596

Reliable design of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) to access transformations not observed in nature remains a long-standing and important challenge. We report that a monomeric streptavidin (mSav) Rh(III) ArM permits asymmetric synthesis of α,β-unsaturated-δ-lactams via a tandem C–H activation and [4+2] annulation reaction. These products are readily derivatized to enantioenriched piperidines, the most common N-heterocycle found in FDA approved pharmaceuticals. Desired δ-lactams are achieved in yields as high as 99% and enantiomeric excess of 97% under aqueous conditions at room temperature. Embedding a Rh cyclopentadienyl (Cp*) catalyst in the active site of mSav results in improved stereocontrol and a 7-fold enhancement in reactivity relative to the isolated biotinylated Rh(III) cofactor. In addition, mSav-Rh outperforms its well-established tetrameric forms, displaying 11–33 times more reactivity.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; OAc
Host protein: Streptavidin (monmeric)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Lactam synthesis
Max TON: 33
ee: 97
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Well-Defined Osmium–Cupin Complex: Hyperstable Artificial Osmium Peroxygenase

Fujieda, N.; Itoh, S.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 5149-5155, 10.1021/jacs.7b00675

Thermally stable TM1459 cupin superfamily protein from Thermotoga maritima was repurposed as an osmium (Os) peroxygenase by metal-substitution strategy employing the metal-binding promiscuity. This novel artificial metalloenzyme bears a datively bound Os ion supported by the 4-histidine motif. The well-defined Os center is responsible for not only the catalytic activity but also the thermodynamic stability of the protein folding, leading to the robust biocatalyst (Tm ≈ 120 °C). The spectroscopic analysis and atomic resolution X-ray crystal structures of Os-bound TM1459 revealed two types of donor sets to Os center with octahedral coordination geometry. One includes trans-dioxide, OH, and mer-three histidine imidazoles (O3N3 donor set), whereas another one has four histidine imidazoles plus OH and water molecule in a cis position (O2N4 donor set). The Os-bound TM1459 having the latter donor set (O2N4 donor set) was evaluated as a peroxygenase, which was able to catalyze cis-dihydroxylation of several alkenes efficiently. With the low catalyst loading (0.01% mol), up to 9100 turnover number was achieved for the dihydroxylation of 2-methoxy-6-vinyl-naphthalene (50 mM) using an equivalent of H2O2 as oxidant at 70 °C for 12 h. When octene isomers were dihydroxylated in a preparative scale for 5 h (2% mol cat.), the terminal alkene octene isomers was converted to the corresponding diols in a higher yield as compared with the internal alkenes. The result indicates that the protein scaffold can control the regioselectivity by the steric hindrance. This protein scaffold enhances the efficiency of the reaction by suppressing disproportionation of H2O2 on Os reaction center. Moreover, upon a simple site-directed mutagenesis, the catalytic activity was enhanced by about 3-fold, indicating that Os-TM1459 is evolvable nascent osmium peroxygenase.


Metal: Os
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TM1459 cupin
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Dihydroxylation
Max TON: 45
ee: ---
PDB: 5WSE
Notes: Exclusively cis dihydroxylation product obtained

Metal: Os
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TM1459 cupin
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Dihydroxylation
Max TON: 45
ee: ---
PDB: 5WSF
Notes: Exclusively cis dihydroxylation product obtained

Biosynthesis of a Site-Specific DNA Cleaving Protein

Schultz, P.G.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 13194-13195, 10.1021/ja804653f

An E. coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) has been converted into a sequence-specific DNA cleaving protein by genetically introducing (2,2′-bipyridin-5-yl)alanine (Bpy-Ala) into the protein. The mutant CAP (CAP-K26Bpy-Ala) showed comparable binding affinity to CAP-WT for the consensus operator sequence. In the presence of Cu(II) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, CAP-K26Bpy-Ala cleaves double-stranded DNA with high sequence specificity. This method should provide a useful tool for mapping the molecular details of protein−nucleic acid interactions.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Catabolite activator protein from E. coli

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Catabolite activator protein from E. coli

Breaking Symmetry: Engineering Single-Chain Dimeric Streptavidin as Host for Artificial Metalloenzymes

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 15869-15878, 10.1021/jacs.9b06923

The biotin–streptavidin technology has been extensively exploited to engineer artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) that catalyze a dozen different reactions. Despite its versatility, the homotetrameric nature of streptavidin (Sav) and the noncooperative binding of biotinylated cofactors impose two limitations on the genetic optimization of ArMs: (i) point mutations are reflected in all four subunits of Sav, and (ii) the noncooperative binding of biotinylated cofactors to Sav may lead to an erosion in the catalytic performance, depending on the cofactor:biotin-binding site ratio. To address these challenges, we report on our efforts to engineer a (monovalent) single-chain dimeric streptavidin (scdSav) as scaffold for Sav-based ArMs. The versatility of scdSav as host protein is highlighted for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of prochiral imines using [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl] as cofactor. By capitalizing on a more precise genetic fine-tuning of the biotin-binding vestibule, unrivaled levels of activity and selectivity were achieved for the reduction of challenging prochiral imines. Comparison of the saturation kinetic data and X-ray structures of [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl]·scdSav with a structurally related [Cp*Ir(biot-p-L)Cl]·monovalent scdSav highlights the advantages of the presence of a single biotinylated cofactor precisely localized within the biotin-binding vestibule of the monovalent scdSav. The practicality of scdSav-based ArMs was illustrated for the reduction of the salsolidine precursor (500 mM) to afford (R)-salsolidine in 90% ee and >17 000 TONs. Monovalent scdSav thus provides a versatile scaffold to evolve more efficient ArMs for in vivo catalysis and large-scale applications.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Cp*; Phenanthroline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 17000
ee: 98
PDB: 6S4Q
Notes: Additional PDB: 6S50

Catalytic Cyclopropanation by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Iron Porphycene: Acceleration of Catalysis due to Rapid Formation of the Carbene Species

Hasegawa, J.-Y.; Lehnert, N.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 17265-17268, 10.1021/jacs.7b10154

Myoglobin reconstituted with iron porphycene catalyzes the cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate. Compared to native myoglobin, the reconstituted protein significantly accelerates the catalytic reaction and the kcat/Km value is 26-fold enhanced. Mechanistic studies indicate that the reaction of the reconstituted protein with ethyl diazoacetate is 615-fold faster than that of native myoglobin. The metallocarbene species reacts with styrene with the apparent second-order kinetic constant of 28 mM–1 s–1 at 25 °C. Complementary theoretical studies support efficient carbene formation by the reconstituted protein that results from the strong ligand field of the porphycene and fewer intersystem crossing steps relative to the native protein. From these findings, the substitution of the cofactor with an appropriate metal complex serves as an effective way to generate a new biocatalyst.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Cyclopropanation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate: kcat/KM = 1.3 mM-1 * s-1, trans/cis = 99:1

Catalytic Reduction of NO to N2O by a Designed Heme Copper Center in Myoglobin: Implications for the Role of Metal Ions

Lu, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6766-6767, 10.1021/ja058822p

The effects of metal ions on the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) with a designed heme copper center in myoglobin (F43H/L29H sperm whale Mb, CuBMb) were investigated under reducing anaerobic conditions using UV−vis and EPR spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS. In the presence of Cu(I), catalytic reduction of NO to N2O by CuBMb was observed with turnover number of 2 mol NO·mol CuBMb-1·min-1, close to 3 mol NO·mol enzyme-1·min-1 reported for the ba3 oxidases from T. thermophilus. Formation of a His-heme-NO species was detected by UV−vis and EPR spectroscopy. In comparison to the EPR spectra of ferrous-CuBMb-NO in the absence of metal ions, the EPR spectra of ferrous-CuBMb-NO in the presence of Cu(I) showed less-resolved hyperfine splitting from the proximal histidine, probably due to weakening of the proximal His-heme bond. In the presence of Zn(II), formation of a five-coordinate ferrous-CuBMb-NO species, resulting from cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, was shown by UV−vis and EPR spectroscopic studies. The reduction of NO to N2O was not observed in the presence of Zn(II). Control experiments using wild-type myoglobin indicated no reduction of NO in the presence of either Cu(I) or Zn(II). These results suggest that both the identity and the oxidation state of the metal ion in the CuB center are important for NO reduction. A redox-active metal ion is required to deliver electrons, and a higher oxidation state is preferred to weaken the heme iron−proximal histidine toward a five-coordinate key intermediate in NO reduction.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid; Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 2400
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Chemoselective, Enzymatic C−H Bond Amination Catalyzed by a Cytochrome P450 Containing an Ir(Me)-PIX Cofactor

Hartwig, J.F.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 1750-1753, 10.1021/jacs.6b11410

Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been engineered to catalyze abiological C–H bond amination reactions, but the yields of these reactions have been limited by low chemoselectivity for the amination of C–H bonds over competing reduction of the azide substrate to a sulfonamide. Here we report that P450s derived from a thermophilic organism and containing an iridium porphyrin cofactor (Ir(Me)-PIX) in place of the heme catalyze enantioselective intramolecular C−H bond amination reactions of sulfonyl azides. These reactions occur with chemoselectivity for insertion of the nitrene units into C−H bonds over reduction of the azides to the sulfonamides that is higher and with substrate scope that is broader than those of enzymes containing iron porphyrins. The products from C−H amination are formed in up to 98% yield and ∼300 TON. In one case, the enantiomeric excess reaches 95:5 er, and the reactions can occur with divergent site selectivity. The chemoselectivity for C–H bond amination is greater than 20:1 in all cases. Variants of the Ir(Me)-PIX CYP119 displaying these properties were identified rapidly by evaluating CYP119 mutants containing Ir(Me)-PIX in cell lysates, rather than as purified enzymes. This study sets the stage to discover suitable enzymes to catalyze challenging C–H amination reactions.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 294
ee: 26
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Methyl; Porphyrin
Host protein: Cytochrome P450 (CYP119)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: C-H activation
Max TON: 192
ee: 95
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Control of the Coordination Structure of Organometallic Palladium Complexes in an Apo-Ferritin Cage

Ueno, T.; Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10512-10514, 10.1021/ja802463a

We report the preparation of organometallic Pd(allyl) dinuclear complexes in protein cages of apo-Fr by reactions with [Pd(allyl)Cl]2 (allyl = η3-C3H5). One of the dinuclear complexes is converted to a trinuclear complex by replacing a Pd-coordinated His residue to an Ala residue. These results suggest that multinuclear metal complexes with various coordination structures could be prepared by the deletion or introduction of His, Cys, and Glu at appropriate positions on protein surface.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Allyl
Host protein: Ferritin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Suzuki coupling
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2ZG7
Notes: ---

Conversion of a Protein to a Homogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalyst by Site-Specific Modification with a Diphosphinerhodium (I) Moiety

Whitesides, G.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 306-307, 10.1021/ja00469a064

n/a


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 500
ee: 41
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Coordinated Design of Cofactor and Active Site Structures in Development of New Protein Catalysts

Watanabe, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 6556-6562, 10.1021/ja045995q

New methods for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes are important for the construction of novel biocatalysts and biomaterials. Recently, we reported new methodology for the synthesis of artificial metalloenzymes by reconstituting apo-myoglobin with metal complexes (Ohashi, M. et al., Angew Chem., Int. Ed.2003, 42, 1005−1008). However, it has been difficult to improve their reactivity, since their crystal structures were not available. In this article, we report the crystal structures of MIII(Schiff base)·apo-A71GMbs (M = Cr and Mn). The structures suggest that the position of the metal complex in apo-Mb is regulated by (i) noncovalent interaction between the ligand and surrounding peptides and (ii) the ligation of the metal ion to proximal histidine (His93). In addition, it is proposed that specific interactions of Ile107 with 3- and 3‘-substituent groups on the salen ligand control the location of the Schiff base ligand in the active site. On the basis of these results, we have successfully controlled the enantioselectivity in the sulfoxidation of thioanisole by changing the size of substituents at the 3 and 3‘ positions. This is the first example of an enantioselective enzymatic reaction regulated by the design of metal complex in the protein active site.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1V9Q
Notes: ---

Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1J3F
Notes: ---

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Cr
Ligand type: Salen
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Cross-Linked Artificial Enzyme Crystals as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

Cavazza, C.; Ménage, S.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 17994-18002, 10.1021/jacs.7b09343

Designing systems that merge the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, enzymology, and molecular catalysis represents the next major goal for sustainable chemistry. Cross-linked enzyme crystals display most of these essential assets (well-designed mesoporous support, protein selectivity, and molecular recognition of substrates). Nevertheless, a lack of reaction diversity, particularly in the field of oxidation, remains a constraint for their increased use in the field. Here, thanks to the design of cross-linked artificial nonheme iron oxygenase crystals, we filled this gap by developing biobased heterogeneous catalysts capable of oxidizing carbon–carbon double bonds. First, reductive O2 activation induces selective oxidative cleavage, revealing the indestructible character of the solid catalyst (at least 30 000 turnover numbers without any loss of activity). Second, the use of 2-electron oxidants allows selective and high-efficiency hydroxychlorination with thousands of turnover numbers. This new technology by far outperforms catalysis using the inorganic complexes alone, or even the artificial enzymes in solution. The combination of easy catalyst synthesis, the improvement of “omic” technologies, and automation of protein crystallization makes this strategy a real opportunity for the future of (bio)catalysis.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: ---
Host protein: NikA
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 28000
ee: ---
PDB: 5ON0
Notes: Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLEC) as catalysts.

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: ---
Host protein: NikA
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 5900
ee: ---
PDB: 5ON0
Notes: Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLEC) as catalysts.

C(sp3)–H Bond Hydroxylation Catalyzed by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Manganese Porphycene

Hayashi, T

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 17282-17285, 10.1021/ja409404k

Myoglobin reconstituted with manganese porphycene was prepared in an effort to generate a new biocatalyst and was characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of the reconstituted protein reveals that the artificial cofactor is located in the intrinsic heme-binding site with weak ligation by His93. Interestingly, the reconstituted protein catalyzes the H2O2-dependent hydroxylation of ethylbenzene to yield 1-phenylethanol as a single product with a turnover number of 13 at 25 °C and pH 8.5. Native myoglobin and other modified myoglobins do not catalyze C–H hydroxylation of alkanes. Isotope effect experiments yield KIE values of 2.4 and 6.1 for ethylbenzene and toluene, respectively. Kinetic data, log kobs versus BDE(C(sp3)–H) for ethylbenzene, toluene, and cyclohexane, indicate a linear relationship with a negative slope. These findings clearly indicate that the reaction occurs via a rate-determining step that involves hydrogen-atom abstraction by a Mn(O) species and a subsequent rebound hydroxylation process which is similar to the reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroxylation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2WI8
Notes: ---

Defining the Role of Tyrosine and Rational Tuning of Oxidase Activity by Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Tyrosine Analogs

Lu, Y.; Wang, J.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 4594-4597, 10.1021/ja5109936

While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pKa and reduction potential in O2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1200
ee: ---
PDB: 4FWX
Notes: Sperm whale myoglobin

Flavohemoglobin: A Semisynthetic Hydroxylase Acting in the Absence of Reductase

Kaiser, E.T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109, 606-607, 10.1021/ja00236a062

n/a


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Hemoglobin
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Genetic Engineering of an Artificial Metalloenzyme for Transfer Hydrogenation of a Self-Immolative Substrate in Escherichia coli’s Periplasm

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 13171-13175, 10.1021/jacs.8b07189

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs), which combine an abiotic metal cofactor with a protein scaffold, catalyze various synthetically useful transformations. To complement the natural enzymes’ repertoire, effective optimization protocols to improve ArM’s performance are required. Here we report on our efforts to optimize the activity of an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) using Escherichia coli whole cells. For this purpose, we rely on a self-immolative quinolinium substrate which, upon reduction, releases fluorescent umbelliferone, thus allowing efficient screening. Introduction of a loop in the immediate proximity of the Ir-cofactor afforded an ArM with up to 5-fold increase in transfer hydrogenation activity compared to the wild-type ATHase using purified mutants.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 1000
ee: 76
PDB: 6GMI
Notes: ---

Going Beyond Structure: Nickel-Substituted Rubredoxin as a Mechanistic Model for the [NiFe] Hydrogenases

Shafaat, H.S.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 10250-10262, 10.1021/jacs.8b05194

Well-defined molecular systems for catalytic hydrogen production that are robust, easily generated, and active under mild aqueous conditions remain underdeveloped. Nickel-substituted rubredoxin (NiRd) is one such system, featuring a tetrathiolate coordination environment around the nickel center that is identical to the native [NiFe] hydrogenases and demonstrating hydrogenase-like proton reduction activity. However, until now, the catalytic mechanism has remained elusive. In this work, we have combined quantitative protein film electrochemistry with optical and vibrational spectroscopy, density functional theory calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations to interrogate the mechanism of H2 evolution by NiRd. Proton-coupled electron transfer is found to be essential for catalysis. The coordinating thiolate ligands serve as the sites of protonation, a role that remains debated in the native [NiFe] hydrogenases, with reduction occurring at the nickel center following protonation. The rate-determining step is suggested to be intramolecular proton transfer via thiol inversion to generate a NiIII–hydride species. NiRd catalysis is found to be completely insensitive to the presence of oxygen, another advantage over the native [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes, with potential implications for membrane-less fuel cells and aerobic hydrogen evolution. Targeted mutations around the metal center are seen to increase the activity and perturb the rate-determining process, highlighting the importance of the outer coordination sphere. Collectively, these results indicate that NiRd evolves H2 through a mechanism similar to that of the [NiFe] hydrogenases, suggesting a role for thiolate protonation in the native enzyme and guiding rational optimization of the NiRd system.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Rubredoxin (Rd)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 149 s-1