Engineered Metal Regulation of Trypsin Specificity
Histidine substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin by creating metal binding sites for Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. The sites bridge the substrate and enzyme on the leaving-group side of the scissile bond. Application of simple steric and geometric criteria to a crystallographically derived enzyme- substrate model suggested that histidine specificity at the P2' position might be acheived by a tridentate site involving amino acid residues 143 and 151 of trypsin. Trypsin N143H/E151H hydrolyzes a P2'- His-containing peptide (AGPYAHSS) exclusively in the presence of nickel or zinc with a high level of catalytic efficiency. Since cleavage following the tyrosine residue is normally highly disfavored by trypsin, this result demonstrates that a metal cofactor can be used to modulate specificity in a designed fashion. The same geometric criteria applied in the primary SI binding pocket suggested that the single-site mutation D189H might effect metal-dependent His specificity in trypsin. However, kinetic and crystallographic analysis of this variant showed that the design was unsuccessful because His 189 rotates away from substrate causing a large perturbation in adjacent surface loops. This observation suggests that the reason specificity modification at the trypsin S1 site requires extensive mutagenesis is because the pocket cannot deform locally to accommodate alternate PI side chains. By taking advantage of the extended subsites, an alternate substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin.
Metal: ZnAnchoring strategy: DativeOptimization: GeneticMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: Substrate specificty
Rare Earth Metal Ions as Probes of Calcium Binding Sites in Proteins: Neodynium Acceleration of the Activation of Trypsinogen
The rate of activation of the conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin has been found to be greatly accelerated by the neodymium(III) ion. The similarity of this process to the calcium(II) ion activation suggests that both metal ions bind at identical sites in trypsinogen. The rate of activation in the presence of the neodymium ion is much greater than that of the calcium ion, probably reflecting the increased stability constant of the neodymium-protein complex. In contrast to the calcium ion, however, neodymium(III) can be scrutinized by a variety of spectral and magnetic techniques which should reveal information concerning the calcium ion binding sites in proteins. Since the chemistry and the range of sires of the rare earth metal ions are so similar to that of the calcium ion, it is suggested that generally these ions should make good replacement ions for probing the calcium ion binding sites of proteins and enzymes.