4 publications

4 publications

A Cell-Penetrating Artificial Metalloenzyme Regulates a Gene Switch in a Designer Mammalian Cell

Fussenegger, M.; Matile, S.; Ward, T.R.

Nat. Commun. 2018, 9, 10.1038/s41467-018-04440-0

Complementing enzymes in their native environment with either homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts is challenging due to the sea of functionalities present within a cell. To supplement these efforts, artificial metalloenzymes are drawing attention as they combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes. Herein we show that such hybrid catalysts consisting of a metal cofactor, a cell-penetrating module, and a protein scaffold are taken up into HEK-293T cells where they catalyze the uncaging of a hormone. This bioorthogonal reaction causes the upregulation of a gene circuit, which in turn leads to the expression of a nanoluc-luciferase. Relying on the biotin–streptavidin technology, variation of the biotinylated ruthenium complex: the biotinylated cell-penetrating poly(disulfide) ratio can be combined with point mutations on streptavidin to optimize the catalytic uncaging of an allyl-carbamate-protected thyroid hormone triiodothyronine. These results demonstrate that artificial metalloenzymes offer highly modular tools to perform bioorthogonal catalysis in live HEK cells.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Cp; Quinoline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Deallylation
Max TON: 33
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Whole Cell E. coli Display Platform for Artificial Metalloenzymes: Poly(phenylacetylene) Production with a Rhodium–Nitrobindin Metalloprotein

Schwaneberg, U.

ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 2611-2614, 10.1021/acscatal.7b04369

Whole cell catalysis is, in many cases, a prerequisite for the cost-effective production of chemicals by biotechnological means. Synthetic metal catalysts for bioorthogonal reactions can be inactivated within cells due to abundant thiol derivatives. Here, a cell surface display-based whole cell biohybrid catalyst system (termed ArMt bugs) is reported as a generally applicable platform to unify cost-effective whole cell catalysis with biohybrid catalysis. An inactivated esterase autotransporter is employed to display the nitrobindin protein scaffold with a Rh catalyst on the E. coli surface. Stereoselective polymerization of phenylacetylene yielded a high turnover number (TON) (39 × 106 cell–1) for the ArMt bugs conversion platform.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: COD; Cp
Host protein: Nitrobindin variant NB4
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 3046
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Calculated in vivo TON assuming 12800 metalloenzymes per E. coli cell

E. coli Surface Display of Streptavidin for Directed Evolution of an Allylic Deallylase

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 5383-5388, 10.1039/c8sc00484f

Artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs hereafter) combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes and offer the potential to implement new-to-nature reactions in living organisms. Herein we present an E. coli surface display platform for streptavidin (Sav hereafter) relying on an Lpp-OmpA anchor. The system was used for the high throughput screening of a bioorthogonal CpRu-based artificial deallylase (ADAse) that uncages an allylcarbamate-protected aminocoumarin 1. Two rounds of directed evolution afforded the double mutant S112M–K121A that displayed a 36-fold increase in surface activity vs. cellular background and a 5.7-fold increased in vitro activity compared to the wild type enzyme. The crystal structure of the best ADAse reveals the importance of mutation S112M to stabilize the cofactor conformation inside the protein.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Cp; Quinoline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Deallylation
Max TON: 148
ee: ---
PDB: 6FH8
Notes: ---

On-Cell Catalysis by Surface Engineering of Live Cells with an Artificial Metalloenzyme

Gademann, K.

Commun. Chem. 2018, 1, 10.1038/s42004-018-0087-y

Metal-catalyzed chemical transformations performed at the cellular level bear great potential for the manipulation of biological processes. The complexity of the cell renders the use of transition metal chemistry difficult in cellular systems. The delivery of the reactive catalyst and the control of its spatial localization remain challenging. Here we report the surface functionalization of the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a tailor-made artificial metalloenzyme for on-cell catalysis. The functionalized cells remain viable and are able to uncage a fluorogenic substrate on their surface. This work leverages cell surface engineering to provide live cells with new-to-nature reactivity. In addition, this operationally simple approach is not genetically encoded and thereby transient, which offers advantages with regard to temporal control, cell viability, and safety. Therefore, and as a feature, the movement of the functionalized cells can be directed by light (via phototaxis), allowing for the three-dimensional localization of catalysts by outside stimuli.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Cp; Quinoline
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Deallylation
Max TON: 80
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Catalysis on algae surface