Artificial Metalloproteins Containing Co4O4 Cubane Active Sites
Artificial metalloproteins (ArMs) containing Co4O4 cubane active sites were constructed via biotin–streptavidin technology. Stabilized by hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), terminal and cofacial CoIII–OH2 moieties are observed crystallographically in a series of immobilized cubane sites. Solution electrochemistry provided correlations of oxidation potential and pH. For variants containing Ser and Phe adjacent to the metallocofactor, 1e–/1H+ chemistry predominates until pH 8, above which the oxidation becomes pH-independent. Installation of Tyr proximal to the Co4O4 active site provided a single H-bond to one of a set of cofacial CoIII–OH2 groups. With this variant, multi-e–/multi-H+ chemistry is observed, along with a change in mechanism at pH 9.5 that is consistent with Tyr deprotonation. With structural similarities to both the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (H-bonded Tyr) and to thin film water oxidation catalysts (Co4O4 core), these findings bridge synthetic and biological systems for water oxidation, highlighting the importance of secondary sphere interactions in mediating multi-e–/multi-H+ reactivity.
Metal: CoNotes: Co-complex in Sav WT
Peroxide Activation Regulated by Hydrogen Bonds within Artificial Cu Proteins
Copper–hydroperoxido species (CuII–OOH) have been proposed to be key intermediates in biological and synthetic oxidations. Using biotin–streptavidin (Sav) technology, artificial copper proteins have been developed to stabilize a CuII–OOH complex in solution and in crystallo. Stability is achieved because the Sav host provides a local environment around the Cu–OOH that includes a network of hydrogen bonds to the hydroperoxido ligand. Systematic deletions of individual hydrogen bonds to the Cu–OOH complex were accomplished using different Sav variants and demonstrated that stability is achieved with a single hydrogen bond to the proximal O-atom of the hydroperoxido ligand: changing this interaction to only include the distal O-atom produced a reactive variant that oxidized an external substrate.