Artificial Metalloproteins Containing Co4O4 Cubane Active Sites
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 2739-2742, 10.1021/jacs.7b13052
Artificial metalloproteins (ArMs) containing Co4O4 cubane active sites were constructed via biotin–streptavidin technology. Stabilized by hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), terminal and cofacial CoIII–OH2 moieties are observed crystallographically in a series of immobilized cubane sites. Solution electrochemistry provided correlations of oxidation potential and pH. For variants containing Ser and Phe adjacent to the metallocofactor, 1e–/1H+ chemistry predominates until pH 8, above which the oxidation becomes pH-independent. Installation of Tyr proximal to the Co4O4 active site provided a single H-bond to one of a set of cofacial CoIII–OH2 groups. With this variant, multi-e–/multi-H+ chemistry is observed, along with a change in mechanism at pH 9.5 that is consistent with Tyr deprotonation. With structural similarities to both the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (H-bonded Tyr) and to thin film water oxidation catalysts (Co4O4 core), these findings bridge synthetic and biological systems for water oxidation, highlighting the importance of secondary sphere interactions in mediating multi-e–/multi-H+ reactivity.
Metal: CoReaction: Electron/Proton transferMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: 6AUCNotes: Co-complex in Sav WT
Metal: CoReaction: Electron/Proton transferMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: 6AUENotes: Co-complex in Sav S112Y
Artificial Metalloproteins with Dinuclear Iron–Hydroxido Centers
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 2384-2393, 10.1021/jacs.0c12564
Dinuclear iron centers with a bridging hydroxido or oxido ligand form active sites within a variety of metalloproteins. A key feature of these sites is the ability of the protein to control the structures around the Fe centers, which leads to entatic states that are essential for function. To simulate this controlled environment, artificial proteins have been engineered using biotin–streptavidin (Sav) technology in which Fe complexes from adjacent subunits can assemble to form [FeIII–(μ-OH)–FeIII] cores. The assembly process is promoted by the site-specific localization of the Fe complexes within a subunit through the designed mutation of a tyrosinate side chain to coordinate the Fe centers. An important outcome is that the Sav host can regulate the Fe···Fe separation, which is known to be important for function in natural metalloproteins. Spectroscopic and structural studies from X-ray diffraction methods revealed uncommonly long Fe···Fe separations that change by less than 0.3 Å upon the binding of additional bridging ligands. The structural constraints imposed by the protein host on the di-Fe cores are unique and create examples of active sites having entatic states within engineered artificial metalloproteins.
Metal: FeLigand type: Amino acidAnchoring strategy: Dative; SupramolecularReaction: ---Max TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: PDB: 6VOZ, 6VO9
Peroxide Activation Regulated by Hydrogen Bonds within Artificial Cu Proteins
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 17289-17292, 10.1021/jacs.7b10452
Copper–hydroperoxido species (CuII–OOH) have been proposed to be key intermediates in biological and synthetic oxidations. Using biotin–streptavidin (Sav) technology, artificial copper proteins have been developed to stabilize a CuII–OOH complex in solution and in crystallo. Stability is achieved because the Sav host provides a local environment around the Cu–OOH that includes a network of hydrogen bonds to the hydroperoxido ligand. Systematic deletions of individual hydrogen bonds to the Cu–OOH complex were accomplished using different Sav variants and demonstrated that stability is achieved with a single hydrogen bond to the proximal O-atom of the hydroperoxido ligand: changing this interaction to only include the distal O-atom produced a reactive variant that oxidized an external substrate.
Metal: CuLigand type: Bis(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amineNotes: ---