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Host protein

6-Phospho-gluconolactonase (6-PGLac) A2A adenosine receptor Adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP) Antibody Antibody 03-1 Antibody 12E11G Antibody 13G10 Antibody 13G10 / 14H7 Antibody 14H7 Antibody 1G8 Antibody 28F11 Antibody 38C2 Antibody 3A3 Antibody 7A3 Antibody7G12-A10-G1-A12 Antibody L-chain from Mab13-1 hybridoma cells Antibody SN37.4 Apo-[Fe]-hydrogenase from M. jannaschii Apo-ferritin Apo-HydA1 ([FeFe]-hydrogenase) from C. reinhardtii Apo-HydA enzymes from C. reinhardtii, M. elsdenii, C. pasteurianum Artificial construct Avidin (Av) Azurin Binding domain of Rabenosyn (Rab4) Bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA) Bovine carbonic anhydrase II (CA) Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Bovine β-lactoglobulin (βLG) Bromelain Burkavidin C45 (c-type cytochrome maquette) Carbonic anhydrase (CA) Carboxypeptidase A Catabolite activator protein (CAP) CeuE C-terminal domain of calmodulin Cutinase Cytochrome b562 Cytochrome BM3h Cytochrome c Cytochrome c552 Cytochrome cb562 Cytochrome c peroxidase Cytochrome P450 (CYP119) Domain of Hin recombinase Due Ferro 1 E. coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) [FeFe]-hydrogenase from C. pasteurianum (CpI) Ferredoxin (Fd) Ferritin FhuA FhuA ΔCVFtev Flavodoxin (Fld) Glyoxalase II (Human) (gp27-gp5)3 gp45 [(gp5βf)3]2 Heme oxygenase (HO) Hemoglobin Horse heart cytochrome c Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) Human carbonic anhydrase Human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) Human retinoid-X-receptor (hRXRa) Human serum albumin (HSA) HydA1 ([FeFe]-hydrogenase) from C. reinhardtii IgG 84A3 Laccase Lipase B from C. antarctica (CALB) Lipase from G. thermocatenulatus (GTL) LmrR Lysozyme Lysozyme (crystal) Mimochrome Fe(III)-S6G(D)-MC6 (De novo designed peptide) Mouse adenosine deaminase Myoglobin (Mb) Neocarzinostatin (variant 3.24) NikA Nitrobindin (Nb) Nitrobindin variant NB4 Nuclease from S. aureus Papain (PAP) Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) Photosystem I (PSI) Phytase Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) from P. furiosus Rabbit serum albumin (RSA) Ribonuclease S RNase A Rubredoxin (Rd) Silk fibroin fibre Small heat shock protein from M. jannaschii ß-lactoglobulin Staphylococcal nuclease Steroid Carrier Protein 2L (SCP 2L) Sterol Carrier Protein (SCP) Streptavidin (monmeric) Streptavidin (Sav) Thermolysin Thermosome (THS) tHisF TM1459 cupin TRI peptide Trypsin Tryptophan gene repressor (trp) Xylanase A (XynA) Zn8:AB54 Zn8:AB54 (mutant C96T) α3D peptide α-chymotrypsin β-lactamase β-lactoglobulin (βLG)

Corresponding author

Akabori, S. Alberto, R. Albrecht, M. Anderson, J. L. R. Apfel, U.-P. Arnold, F. H. Artero, V. Bäckvall, J. E. Baker, D. Ball, Z. T. Banse, F. Berggren, G. Bian, H.-D. Birnbaum, E. R. Borovik, A. S. Bren, K. L. Bruns, N. Brustad, E. M. Cardona, F. Case, M. A. Cavazza, C. Chan, A. S. C. Coleman, J. E. Craik, C. S. Creus, M. Cuatrecasas, P. Darnall, D. W. DeGrado, W. F. Dervan, P. B. de Vries, J. Diéguez, M. Distefano, M. D. Don Tilley, T. Duhme-Klair, A. K. Ebright, R. H. Emerson, J. P. Eppinger, J. Fasan, R. Filice, M. Fontecave, M. Fontecilla-Camps, J. C. Fruk, L. Fujieda, N. Fussenegger, M. Gademann, K. Gaggero, N. Germanas, J. P. Ghattas, W. Ghirlanda, G. Golinelli-Pimpaneau, B. Goti, A. Gras, E. Gray, H. B. Green, A. P. Gross, Z. Gunasekeram, A. Happe, T. Harada, A. Hartwig, J. F. Hasegawa, J.-Y. Hayashi, T Hemschemeier, A. Herrick, R. S. Hilvert, D. Hirota, S. Huang, F.-P. Hureau, C. Hu, X. Hyster, T. K. Imanaka, T. Imperiali, B. Itoh, S. Janda, K. D. Jarvis, A. G. Jaussi, R. Jeschek, M. Kaiser, E. T. Kamer, P. C. J. Kazlauskas, R. J. Keinan, E. Khare, S. D. Kim, H. S. Kitagawa, S. Klein Gebbink, R. J. M. Kokubo, T. Korendovych, I. V. Kuhlman, B. Kurisu, G. Laan, W. Lee, S.-Y. Lehnert, N. Leow, T. C. Lerner, R. A. Lewis, J. C. Liang, H. Lindblad, P. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, J. Lombardi, A. Lubitz, W. Lu, Y. Maglio, O. Mahy, J.-P. Mangiatordi, G. F. Marchetti, M. Maréchal, J.-D. Marino, T. Marshall, N. M. Matile, S. Matsuo, T. McNaughton, B. R. Ménage, S. Messori, L. Mulfort, K. L. Nastri, F. Nicholas, K. M. Niemeyer, C. M. Nolte, R. J. M. Novič, M. Okamoto, Y. Okano, M. Okuda, J. Onoda, A. Oohora, K. Palomo, J. M. Pàmies, O. Panke, S. Pan, Y. Paradisi, F. Pecoraro, V. L. Pordea, A. Reetz, M. T. Reijerse, E. Renaud, J.-L. Ricoux, R. Rimoldi, I. Roelfes, G. Rovis, T. Sakurai, S. Salmain, M. Sasaki, T. Sauer, D. F. Schultz, P. G. Schwaneberg, U. Seelig, B. Shafaat, H. S. Shahgaldian, P. Sheldon, R. A. Shima, S. Sigman, D. S. Song, W. J. Soumillion, P. Strater, N. Sugiura, Y. Szostak, J. W. Tezcan, F. A. Thorimbert, S. Tiede, D. M. Tiller, J. C. Turner, N. J. Ueno, T. Utschig, L. M. van Koten, G. Wang, J. Ward, T. R. Watanabe, Y. Whitesides, G. M. Wilson, K. S. Woolfson, D. N. Yilmaz, F. Zhang, J.-L.

Journal

3 Biotech Acc. Chem. Res. ACS Catal. ACS Cent. Sci. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. Adv. Synth. Catal. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. Appl. Organomet. Chem. Artificial Metalloenzymes and MetalloDNAzymes in Catalysis: From Design to Applications Beilstein J. Org. Chem. Biochemistry Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Bioenerg. Biochimie Bioconjug. Chem. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. Bioorganometallic Chemistry: Applications in Drug Discovery, Biocatalysis, and Imaging Biopolymers Biotechnol. Adv. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Can. J. Chem. Catal. Lett. Catal. Sci. Technol. Cat. Sci. Technol. ChemBioChem ChemCatChem Chem. Commun. Chem. Rev. Chem. Sci. Chem. Soc. Rev. Chem. - Eur. J. Chem. - Asian J. Chem. Lett. ChemistryOpen ChemPlusChem Chimia Commun. Chem. Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II Comprehensive Supramolecular Chemistry II C. R. Chim. Coordination Chemistry in Protein Cages: Principles, Design, and Applications Coord. Chem. Rev. Croat. Chem. Acta Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. Dalton Trans. Effects of Nanoconfinement on Catalysis Energy Environ. Sci. Eur. J. Biochem. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. FEBS Lett. Helv. Chim. Acta Inorg. Chim. Acta Inorg. Chem. Int. J. Mol. Sci. Isr. J. Chem. J. Biol. Chem. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. J. Immunol. Methods J. Inorg. Biochem. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. J. Mol. Catal. B: Enzym. J. Organomet. Chem. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. J. Porphyr. Phthalocyanines J. Protein Chem. J. Am. Chem. Soc. J. Chem. Soc. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. Methods Enzymol. Mol. Divers. Molecular Encapsulation: Organic Reactions in Constrained Systems Nature Nat. Catal. Nat. Chem. Biol. Nat. Chem. Nat. Commun. Nat. Protoc. Nat. Rev. Chem. New J. Chem. Org. Biomol. Chem. Plos ONE Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Process Biochem. Prog. Inorg. Chem. Prot. Eng. Protein Engineering Handbook Protein Expression Purif. Pure Appl. Chem. RSC Adv. Science Small Synlett Tetrahedron Tetrahedron: Asymmetry Tetrahedron Lett. Chem. Rec. Top. Catal. Top. Organomet. Chem. Trends Biotechnol.

A De Novo Designed Metalloenzyme for the Hydration of CO2

Protein design will ultimately allow for the creation of artificial enzymes with novel functions and unprecedented stability. To test our current mastery of nature’s approach to catalysis, a ZnII metalloenzyme was prepared using de novo design. α3DH3 folds into a stable single‐stranded three‐helix bundle and binds ZnII with high affinity using His3O coordination. The resulting metalloenzyme catalyzes the hydration of CO2 better than any small molecule model of carbonic anhydrase and with an efficiency within 1400‐fold of the fastest carbonic anhydrase isoform, CAII, and 11‐fold of CAIII.

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

α3D peptide

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 3.8*104 M-1*s-1

A Designed Functional Metalloenzyme that Reduces O2 to H2O with Over One Thousand Turnovers

Rational design of functional enzymes with a high number of turnovers is a challenge, especially those with a complex active site, such as respiratory oxidases. Introducing two His and one Tyr residues into myoglobin resulted in enzymes that reduce O2 to H2O with more than 1000 turnovers (red line, see scheme) and minimal release of reactive oxygen species. The positioning of the Tyr residue is critical for activity.

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Myoglobin (Mb)

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Max TON:

1056

ee:

---

PDB:

4FWX

Notes:

Sperm whale myoglobin

A Designed Metalloenzyme Achieving the Catalytic Rate of a Native Enzyme

Terminal oxidases catalyze four-electron reduction of oxygen to water, and the energy harvested is utilized to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. While much effort has been made to design a catalyst mimicking the function of terminal oxidases, most biomimetic catalysts have much lower activity than native oxidases. Herein we report a designed oxidase in myoglobin with an O2 reduction rate (52 s–1) comparable to that of a native cytochrome (cyt) cbb3 oxidase (50 s–1) under identical conditions. We achieved this goal by engineering more favorable electrostatic interactions between a functional oxidase model designed in sperm whale myoglobin and its native redox partner, cyt b5, resulting in a 400-fold electron transfer (ET) rate enhancement. Achieving high activity equivalent to that of native enzymes in a designed metalloenzyme offers deeper insight into the roles of tunable processes such as ET in oxidase activity and enzymatic function and may extend into applications such as more efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for biofuel cells.

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Myoglobin (Mb)

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

O2 reduction

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

O2 reduction rates of 52 s-1 were achieved in combination with the native redox partner cyt b5.

A Designed Supramolecular Protein Assembly with In Vivo Enzymatic Activity

The generation of new enzymatic activities has mainly relied on repurposing the interiors of preexisting protein folds because of the challenge in designing functional, three-dimensional protein structures from first principles. Here we report an artificial metallo-β-lactamase, constructed via the self-assembly of a structurally and functionally unrelated, monomeric redox protein into a tetrameric assembly that possesses catalytic zinc sites in its interfaces. The designed metallo-β-lactamase is functional in the Escherichia coli periplasm and enables the bacteria to survive treatment with ampicillin. In vivo screening of libraries has yielded a variant that displays a catalytic proficiency [(kcat/Km)/kuncat] for ampicillin hydrolysis of 2.3 × 106 and features the emergence of a highly mobile loop near the active site, a key component of natural β-lactamases to enable substrate interactions.

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Cytochrome cb562

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

4U9E

Notes:

---

A Dual Anchoring Strategy for the Localization and Activation of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Artificial metalloenzymes result from anchoring an active catalyst within a protein environment. Toward this goal, various localization strategies have been pursued: covalent, supramolecular, or dative anchoring. Herein we show that introduction of a suitably positioned histidine residue contributes to firmly anchor, via a dative bond, a biotinylated rhodium piano stool complex within streptavidin. The in silico design of the artificial metalloenzyme was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme displays significantly improved catalytic performance, both in terms of activity and selectivity in the transfer hydrogenation of imines. Depending on the position of the histidine residue, both enantiomers of the salsolidine product can be obtained.

Metal:

Ir

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Streptavidin (Sav)

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

14

ee:

11

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Metal:

Rh

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Streptavidin (Sav)

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

100

ee:

79

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

A Dual Anchoring Strategy for the Localization and Activation of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Artificial metalloenzymes result from anchoring an active catalyst within a protein environment. Toward this goal, various localization strategies have been pursued: covalent, supramolecular, or dative anchoring. Herein we show that introduction of a suitably positioned histidine residue contributes to firmly anchor, via a dative bond, a biotinylated rhodium piano stool complex within streptavidin. The in silico design of the artificial metalloenzyme was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme displays significantly improved catalytic performance, both in terms of activity and selectivity in the transfer hydrogenation of imines. Depending on the position of the histidine residue, both enantiomers of the salsolidine product can be obtained.

Metal:

Ir

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Streptavidin (Sav)

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

14

ee:

11

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Metal:

Rh

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Streptavidin (Sav)

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

100

ee:

79

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Alteration of the Oxygen-Dependent Reactivity of De Novo Due Ferri Proteins

De novo proteins provide a unique opportunity to investigate the structure–function relationships of metalloproteins in a minimal, well-defined and controlled scaffold. Here, we describe the rational programming of function in a de novo designed di-iron carboxylate protein from the Due Ferri family. Originally created to catalyse the O2-dependent, two-electron oxidation of hydroquinones, the protein was reprogrammed to catalyse the selective N-hydroxylation of arylamines by remodelling the substrate access cavity and introducing a critical third His ligand to the metal-binding cavity. Additional second- and third-shell modifications were required to stabilize the His ligand in the core of the protein. These structural changes resulted in at least a 106-fold increase in the relative rate between the arylamine N-hydroxylation and hydroquinone oxidation reactions. This result highlights the potential for using de novo proteins as scaffolds for future investigations of the geometric and electronic factors that influence the catalytic tuning of di-iron active sites.

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Due Ferro 1

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

N-Hydroxylation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

2LFD

Notes:

---

An Artificial Di-Iron Oxo-Orotein with Phenol Oxidase Activity

Here we report the de novo design and NMR structure of a four-helical bundle di-iron protein with phenol oxidase activity. The introduction of the cofactor-binding and phenol-binding sites required the incorporation of residues that were detrimental to the free energy of folding of the protein. Sufficient stability was, however, obtained by optimizing the sequence of a loop distant from the active site.

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Due Ferro 1

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Alcohol oxidation

Max TON:

>50

ee:

---

PDB:

2KIK

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 1380 M-1*min-1

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Due Ferro 1

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Amine oxidation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

2KIK

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 83 M-1*min-1

An Artificial Imine Reductase Based on the Ribonuclease S Scaffold

Metal:

Ir

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Ribonuclease S

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

4

ee:

18

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

An Artificial Metalloenzyme: Creation of a Designed Copper Binding Site in a Thermostable Protein

Guided by nature: A designed binding site comprising the His/His/Asp motif for CuII complexation has been constructed in a robust protein by site‐specific mutagenesis (see picture). The artificial metalloenzyme catalyzes an enantioselective Diels–Alder reaction.

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

tHisF

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

6.7

ee:

46

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Artificial Dicopper Oxidase: Rational Reprogramming of Bacterial Metallo- b-lactamase into a Catechol Oxidase

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

β-lactamase

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Catechol oxidation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

2FU7

Notes:

---

Artificial Heme Enzymes for the Construction of Gold-Based Biomaterials

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Porphyrin

Anchoring strategy:

Covalent

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Reaction:

Oxidation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Immobilization of the ArM on gold surfaces via a lipoic acid anchor.

A Well-Defined Osmium–Cupin Complex: Hyperstable Artificial Osmium Peroxygenase

Metal:

Os

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

TM1459 cupin

Anchoring strategy:

Metal substitution

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Dihydroxylation

Max TON:

45

ee:

---

PDB:

5WSE

Notes:

Exclusively cis dihydroxylation product obtained

Metal:

Os

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

TM1459 cupin

Anchoring strategy:

Metal substitution

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Dihydroxylation

Max TON:

45

ee:

---

PDB:

5WSE

Notes:

Exclusively cis dihydroxylation product obtained

Biotinylated Rh(III) Complexes in Engineered Streptavidin for Accelerated Asymmetric C–H Activation

Metal:

Rh

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Cp*

Host protein:

Streptavidin (Sav)

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

C-H activation

Max TON:

95

ee:

82

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Building Reactive Copper Centers in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

---

Reaction:

Oxidation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

1RZC

Notes:

Oxidation of 2-aminophenol with subsequent formation of 2-aminophenoxazinone. Reaction rate = 0.09 s-1

Carbene in Cupredoxin Protein Scaffolds: Replacement of a Histidine Ligand in the Active Site Substantially Alters Copper Redox Properties

Metal:

Cu

Host protein:

Azurin

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Reaction:

Electron transfer

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Catalysis by a De Novo Zinc-Mediated Protein Interface: Implications for Natural Enzyme Evolution and Rational Enzyme Engineering

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Max TON:

>50

ee:

---

PDB:

3V1C

Notes:

---

Catalytic Cyclopropanation by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Iron Porphycene: Acceleration of Catalysis due to Rapid Formation of the Carbene Species

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Porphycene

Host protein:

Myoglobin (Mb)

Anchoring strategy:

Reconstitution

Optimization:

---

Reaction:

Cyclopropanation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate: kcat/KM = 1.3 mM-1 * s-1, trans/cis = 99:1

Catalytic Properties and Specificity of the Extracellular Nuclease of Staphylococcus Aureus

Metal:

Sr

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Nuclease from S. aureus

Anchoring strategy:

Metal substitution

Optimization:

---

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

DNA cleavage

Catalytic Reduction of NO to N2O by a Designed Heme Copper Center in Myoglobin: Implications for the Role of Metal Ions

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid; Porphyrin

Host protein:

Myoglobin (Mb)

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

2400

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Sperm whale myoglobin

Catalytic Water Oxidation by Iridium-Modified Carbonic Anhydrase

Metal:

Ir

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Metal substitution

Optimization:

Chemical

Reaction:

Water oxidation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Sodium periodate as sacrificial oxidant. TOF at pH 7 and 30°C is 39.8 min-1.

Computational Redesign of a Mononuclear Zinc Metalloenzyme for Organophosphate Hydrolysis

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

>140

ee:

---

PDB:

3T1G

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 104 M-1*s-1

De Novo Design of Catalytic Proteins

Metal:

Fe

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Due Ferro 1

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Alcohol oxidation

Max TON:

>100

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 1540 M-1*min-1

Design and Evolution of New Catalytic Activity with an Existing Protein Scaffold

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Glyoxalase II (Human)

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

2F50

Notes:

kcat/KM ≈ 184 M-1*s-1

Designing a Functional Type 2 Copper Center that has Nitrite Reductase Activity Within α-Helical Coiled Coils

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

TRI peptide

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Max TON:

>5

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Nitrite reduction

Design of a Switchable Eliminase

Metal:

Ca

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Reaction:

Kemp elimination

Max TON:

>40

ee:

---

PDB:

2KZ2

Notes:

Ca acts as allosteric regulator, catalytically active site contains no metal

Direct Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide by an Artificial Reductase Obtained by Substituting Rhodium for Zinc in the Carbonic Anhydrase Catalytic Center. A Mechanistic Study

Metal:

Rh

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Metal substitution

Optimization:

---

Reaction:

Hydrogenation

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Computational study of the reaction mechanism of the formation of HCOOH from CO2

Diruthenium Diacetate-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Hydroxylamines and Improved Chemoselectivity by Immobilization to Lysozyme

Metal:

Ru

Ligand type:

Amino acid; OAc

Host protein:

Lysozyme

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Chemical

Max TON:

1000

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

---

Engineered Metal Regulation of Trypsin Specificity

Metal:

Zn

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Trypsin

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Substrate specificty

Metal:

Ni

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Host protein:

Trypsin

Anchoring strategy:

Dative

Optimization:

Genetic

Max TON:

---

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

Substrate specificty

Enzyme Repurposing of a Hydrolase as an Emergent Peroxidase Upon Metal Binding

Metal:

Cu

Ligand type:

Amino acid

Anchoring strategy:

Supramolecular

Optimization:

Chemical & genetic

Max TON:

35

ee:

---

PDB:

---

Notes:

---