Artificial Heme Enzymes for the Construction of Gold-Based Biomaterials
Many efforts are continuously devoted to the construction of hybrid biomaterials for specific applications, by immobilizing enzymes on different types of surfaces and/or nanomaterials. In addition, advances in computational, molecular and structural biology have led to a variety of strategies for designing and engineering artificial enzymes with defined catalytic properties. Here, we report the conjugation of an artificial heme enzyme (MIMO) with lipoic acid (LA) as a building block for the development of gold-based biomaterials. We show that the artificial MIMO@LA can be successfully conjugated to gold nanoparticles or immobilized onto gold electrode surfaces, displaying quasi-reversible redox properties and peroxidase activity. The results of this work open interesting perspectives toward the development of new totally-synthetic catalytic biomaterials for application in biotechnology and biomedicine, expanding the range of the biomolecular component aside from traditional native enzymes.
Metal: FeHost protein: Mimochrome Fe(III)-S6G(D)-MC6 (De novo designed peptide)Anchoring strategy: CovalentOptimization: Chemical & geneticReaction: OxidationMax TON: ---ee: ---PDB: ---Notes: Immobilization of the ArM on gold surfaces via a lipoic acid anchor.
Oxidation Catalysis by Iron and Manganese Porphyrins within Enzyme-Like CagesReview
Inspired by natural heme‐proteins, scientists have attempted for decades to design efficient and selective metalloporphyrin‐based oxidation catalysts. Starting from the pioneering work on small molecule mimics in the late 1970s, we have assisted to a tremendous progress in designing cages of different nature and complexity, able to accommodate metalloporphyrins. With the intent of tuning and controlling their reactivity, more and more sophisticated and diverse environments are continuously exploited. In this review, we will survey the current state of art in oxidation catalysis using iron‐ and manganese‐porphyrins housed within designed or engineered protein cages. We will also examine the innovative metal‐organic framework (MOF) systems, exploited to achieving an enzyme‐like environment around the metalloporphyrin cofactor.