18 publications

18 publications

A De Novo Designed Metalloenzyme for the Hydration of CO2

Pecoraro, V.L.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 7900-7903, 10.1002/anie.201404925

Protein design will ultimately allow for the creation of artificial enzymes with novel functions and unprecedented stability. To test our current mastery of nature’s approach to catalysis, a ZnII metalloenzyme was prepared using de novo design. α3DH3 folds into a stable single‐stranded three‐helix bundle and binds ZnII with high affinity using His3O coordination. The resulting metalloenzyme catalyzes the hydration of CO2 better than any small molecule model of carbonic anhydrase and with an efficiency within 1400‐fold of the fastest carbonic anhydrase isoform, CAII, and 11‐fold of CAIII.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: α3D peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM ≈ 3.8*104 M-1*s-1

A Designed Supramolecular Protein Assembly with In Vivo Enzymatic Activity

Tezcan, F.A.

Science 2014, 346, 1525-1528, 10.1126/science.1259680

The generation of new enzymatic activities has mainly relied on repurposing the interiors of preexisting protein folds because of the challenge in designing functional, three-dimensional protein structures from first principles. Here we report an artificial metallo-β-lactamase, constructed via the self-assembly of a structurally and functionally unrelated, monomeric redox protein into a tetrameric assembly that possesses catalytic zinc sites in its interfaces. The designed metallo-β-lactamase is functional in the Escherichia coli periplasm and enables the bacteria to survive treatment with ampicillin. In vivo screening of libraries has yielded a variant that displays a catalytic proficiency [(kcat/Km)/kuncat] for ampicillin hydrolysis of 2.3 × 106 and features the emergence of a highly mobile loop near the active site, a key component of natural β-lactamases to enable substrate interactions.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Cytochrome cb562
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 4U9E
Notes: ---

A Highly Specific Metal-Activated Catalytic Antibody

Janda, K.D.; Lerner, R.A.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 4906-4907, 10.1021/ja00064a068

n/a


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: IgG 84A3
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

A Metal Ion Regulated Artificial Metalloenzyme

Roelfes, G.

Dalton Trans. 2017, 46, 4325-4330, 10.1039/C7DT00533D

An artificial metalloenzyme containing both a regulatory and a catalytic domain is selectively activated in presence of Fe2+ ions.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Bypyridine
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 14
ee: 75
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Bypyridine
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 6
ee: 80
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Catalysis by a De Novo Zinc-Mediated Protein Interface: Implications for Natural Enzyme Evolution and Rational Enzyme Engineering

Kuhlman, B.

Biochemistry 2012, 51, 3933-3940, 10.1021/bi201881p

Here we show that a recent computationally designed zinc-mediated protein interface is serendipitously capable of catalyzing carboxyester and phosphoester hydrolysis. Although the original motivation was to design a de novo zinc-mediated protein–protein interaction (called MID1-zinc), we observed in the homodimer crystal structure a small cleft and open zinc coordination site. We investigated if the cleft and zinc site at the designed interface were sufficient for formation of a primitive active site that can perform hydrolysis. MID1-zinc hydrolyzes 4-nitrophenyl acetate with a rate acceleration of 105 and a kcat/KM of 630 M–1 s–1 and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate with a rate acceleration of 104 and a kcat/KM of 14 M–1 s–1. These rate accelerations by an unoptimized active site highlight the catalytic power of zinc and suggest that the clefts formed by protein–protein interactions are well-suited for creating enzyme active sites. This discovery has implications for protein evolution and engineering: from an evolutionary perspective, three-coordinated zinc at a homodimer interface cleft represents a simple evolutionary path to nascent enzymatic activity; from a protein engineering perspective, future efforts in de novo design of enzyme active sites may benefit from exploring clefts at protein interfaces for active site placement.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >50
ee: ---
PDB: 3V1C
Notes: ---

Computational Redesign of a Mononuclear Zinc Metalloenzyme for Organophosphate Hydrolysis

Baker, D.

Nat. Chem. Biol. 2012, 8, 294-300, 10.1038/NChemBio.777

The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze noncognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of metalloenzyme active site functional groups to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing mouse adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of ∼104 M−1 s−1 after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation. The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of the RP isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and it shows marked substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers a general approach for exploring their untapped catalytic potential for new reactivities.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: >140
ee: ---
PDB: 3T1G
Notes: kcat/KM ≈ 104 M-1*s-1

Design and Evolution of New Catalytic Activity with an Existing Protein Scaffold

Kim, H.S.

Science 2006, 311, 535-538, 10.1126/science.1118953

The design of enzymes with new functions and properties has long been a goal in protein engineering. Here, we report a strategy to change the catalytic activity of an existing protein scaffold. This was achieved by simultaneous incorporation and adjustment of functional elements through insertion, deletion, and substitution of several active site loops, followed by point mutations to fine-tune the activity. Using this approach, we were able to introduce β-lactamase activity into the αβ/βα metallohydrolase scaffold of glyoxalase II. The resulting enzyme, evMBL8 (evolved metallo β-lactamase 8), completely lost its original activity and, instead, catalyzed the hydrolysis of cefotaxime with a (kcat /Km)app of 1.8 × 102 (mole/liter)–1 second–1, thus increasing resistance to Escherichia coli growth on cefotaxime by a factor of about 100.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Glyoxalase II (Human)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2F50
Notes: kcat/KM ≈ 184 M-1*s-1

Engineered Metal Regulation of Trypsin Specificity

Craik, C.S.

Biochemistry 1995, 34, 2172-2180, 10.1021/bi00007a010

Histidine substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin by creating metal binding sites for Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. The sites bridge the substrate and enzyme on the leaving-group side of the scissile bond. Application of simple steric and geometric criteria to a crystallographically derived enzyme- substrate model suggested that histidine specificity at the P2' position might be acheived by a tridentate site involving amino acid residues 143 and 151 of trypsin. Trypsin N143H/E151H hydrolyzes a P2'- His-containing peptide (AGPYAHSS) exclusively in the presence of nickel or zinc with a high level of catalytic efficiency. Since cleavage following the tyrosine residue is normally highly disfavored by trypsin, this result demonstrates that a metal cofactor can be used to modulate specificity in a designed fashion. The same geometric criteria applied in the primary SI binding pocket suggested that the single-site mutation D189H might effect metal-dependent His specificity in trypsin. However, kinetic and crystallographic analysis of this variant showed that the design was unsuccessful because His 189 rotates away from substrate causing a large perturbation in adjacent surface loops. This observation suggests that the reason specificity modification at the trypsin S1 site requires extensive mutagenesis is because the pocket cannot deform locally to accommodate alternate PI side chains. By taking advantage of the extended subsites, an alternate substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Hydrolytic Catalysis and Structural Stabilization in a Designed Metalloprotein

Pecoraro, V.L.

Nat. Chem. 2012, 4, 118-123, 10.1038/NCHEM.1201

Metal ions are an important part of many natural proteins, providing structural, catalytic and electron transfer functions. Reproducing these functions in a designed protein is the ultimate challenge to our understanding of them. Here, we present an artificial metallohydrolase, which has been shown by X-ray crystallography to contain two different metal ions—a Zn(II) ion, which is important for catalytic activity, and a Hg(II) ion, which provides structural stability. This metallohydrolase displays catalytic activity that compares well with several characteristic reactions of natural enzymes. It catalyses p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) hydrolysis with an efficiency only ~100-fold less than that of human carbonic anhydrase (CA)II and at least 550-fold better than comparable synthetic complexes. Similarly, CO2 hydration occurs with an efficiency within ~500-fold of CAII. Although histidine residues in the absence of Zn(II) exhibit pNPA hydrolysis, miniscule apopeptide activity is observed for CO2 hydration. The kinetic and structural analysis of this first de novo designed hydrolytic metalloenzyme reveals necessary design features for future metalloenzymes containing one or more metals.


Metal: Hg; Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TRI peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: >10
ee: ---
PDB: 3PBJ
Notes: Zn ion for catalytic activity, Hg ion for structural stability of the ArM. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.

Metal: Hg; Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TRI peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3PBJ
Notes: Zn ion for catalytic activity, Hg ion for structural stability of the ArM, kcat/KM ≈ 1.8*105 M-1*s-1. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.

Importance of Scaffold Flexibility/Rigidity in the Design and Directed Evolution of Artificial Metallo-β-Lactamases

Song, W.J.; Tezcan, F.A.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 16772-16779, 10.1021/jacs.7b08981

We describe the design and evolution of catalytic hydrolase activity on a supramolecular protein scaffold, Zn4:C96RIDC14, which was constructed from cytochrome cb562 building blocks via a metal-templating strategy. Previously, we reported that Zn4:C96RIDC14 could be tailored with tripodal (His/His/Glu), unsaturated Zn coordination motifs in its interfaces to generate a variant termed Zn8:A104AB34, which in turn displayed catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of activated esters and β-lactam antibiotics. Zn8:A104AB34 was subsequently subjected to directed evolution via an in vivo selection strategy, leading to a variant Zn8:A104/G57AB34 which displayed enzyme-like Michaelis–Menten behavior for ampicillin hydrolysis. A criterion for the evolutionary utility or designability of a new protein structure is its ability to accommodate different active sites. With this in mind, we examined whether Zn4:C96RIDC14 could be tailored with alternative Zn coordination sites that could similarly display evolvable catalytic activities. We report here a detailed structural and functional characterization of new variant Zn8:AB54, which houses similar, unsaturated Zn coordination sites to those in Zn8:A104/G57AB34, but in completely different microenvironments. Zn8:AB54 displays Michaelis–Menten behavior for ampicillin hydrolysis without any optimization. Yet, the subsequent directed evolution of Zn8:AB54 revealed limited catalytic improvement, which we ascribed to the local protein rigidity surrounding the Zn centers and the lack of evolvable loop structures nearby. The relaxation of local rigidity via the elimination of adjacent disulfide linkages led to a considerable structural transformation with a concomitant improvement in β-lactamase activity. Our findings reaffirm previous observations that the delicate balance between protein flexibility and stability is crucial for enzyme design and evolution.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Zn8:AB54
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrolysis
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 5XZI
Notes: Supramolecular protein scaffold constructed from cytochrome cb562 building blocks, Ampicillin hydrolysis: kcat/KM = 130 min-1 * M-1

Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Zn8:AB54 (mutant C96T)
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: Hydrolysis
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 5XZJ
Notes: Supramolecular protein scaffold constructed from cytochrome cb562 building blocks, Ampicillin hydrolysis: kcat/KM = 210 min-1 * M-1

Influence of Active Site Location on Catalytic Activity in De Novo-Designed Zinc Metalloenzymes

Pecoraro, V.L.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5895-5903, 10.1021/ja401537t

While metalloprotein design has now yielded a number of successful metal-bound and even catalytically active constructs, the question of where to put a metal site along a linear, repetitive sequence has not been thoroughly addressed. Often several possibilities in a given sequence may exist that would appear equivalent but may in fact differ for metal affinity, substrate access, or protein dynamics. We present a systematic variation of active site location for a hydrolytically active ZnHis3O site contained within a de novo-designed three-stranded coiled coil. We find that the maximal rate, substrate access, and metal-binding affinity are dependent on the selected position, while catalytic efficiency for p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis can be retained regardless of the location of the active site. This achievement demonstrates how efficient, tailor-made enzymes which control rate, pKa, substrate and solvent access (and selectivity), and metal-binding affinity may be realized. These findings may be applied to the more advanced de novo design of constructs containing secondary interactions, such as hydrogen-bonding channels. We are now confident that changes to location for accommodating such channels can be achieved without location-dependent loss of catalytic efficiency. These findings bring us closer to our ultimate goal of incorporating the secondary interactions we believe will be necessary in order to improve both active site properties and the catalytic efficiency to be competitive with the native enzyme, carbonic anhydrase.


Metal: Hg; Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TRI peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3PBJ
Notes: Influence of position of Zn and Hg ion on catalytic activity of the ArM tested. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.

Metal Incorporated Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) Catalyzed Oxidation of Resveratrol: Selective Dimerization or Decomposition

Pan, Y.

RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 22976, 10.1039/c3ra43784a

Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially available and prevalently used peroxidase with no specific substrate binding domain. However, after being incorporated with different metal cations, new catalytic functions were found in biomimetic oxidation of resveratrol. Based on the results of screening, Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn incorporated enzymes showed distinctive effects, either decomposition or dimerization products were observed.


Metal: Ca; Co; Mn; Ni; Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of resveratrol. Dimerisation product obtained.

Multifunctional Nanoenzymes from Carbonic Anhydrase Skeleton

Yilmaz, F.

Process Biochem. 2018, 72, 71-78, 10.1016/j.procbio.2018.06.005

Carbonic anhydrase (carbonic dehydratase) (CA) is a metalloenzyme that contains zinc (Zn2+) ion in its active site. CA catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. Zn2+ ions, which are present in the active site of the enzyme, interact with the substrate molecules directly and cause catalytic effect. In this study, a nano-enzyme system was designed in aqueous solutions at room temperature and under nitrogen atmosphere to use the CA enzyme without any pre-treatment and deformation in its structure. The novel concept ANADOLUCA (AmiNo Acid (monomer) Decorated and Light Underpinning Conjugation Approach) was used for this process, nano CA enzyme of size 93 nm was synthesized. The activity of the synthesized nano CA was measured following the change in absorbance during the conversion of 4-nitrophenylacetate (NPA) to 4-nitrophenylate ion at 348 nm for a period of 10 min at 25 °C compared with free CA enzyme. Km and Vmax values for nano CA enzyme were found to be 0.442 mM and 1.6 × 10−3 mM min-1, respectively, whereas Km and Vmax values for free CA were found to be 0.471 mM and 1.5 × 10−3 mM min-1, respectively. In addition to these, the Zn2+ ion present in the active site of the nano CA enzyme was replaced by rodium metal. This nanorodium-substituted CA has been investigated as a new reductase enzyme for the stereoselective hydrogenation of olefins. Then, the Zn2+ ion in the active site of the nano CA enzyme was replaced with manganese metal to enhance the enzyme structure, thereby gaining characteristics of peroxidase. This newly synthesized nano manganese-substituted CA enzyme was investigated for its role as a peroxidase, which could be an alternative for hydrogen peroxidases.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrolysis
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate.

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydration
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Hydration of styrene.

Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carbonic anhydrase (CA)
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Cross-linked carbonic anhydrase nano-enzyme particles (93 nm in diameter). Oxidation of styrene.

Neocarzinostatin-Based Hybrid Biocatalysts with a RNase like Activity

Mahy, J.-P.; Ricoux, R.

Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2014, 22, 5678-5686, 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.05.063

A new zinc(II)-cofactor coupled to a testosterone anchor, zinc(II)-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-diamino-propa-2-ol-N′(17′-succinimidyltestosterone) (Zn-Testo-BisPyPol) 1-Zn has been synthesized and fully characterized. It has been further associated with a neocarzinostatin variant, NCS-3.24, to generate a new artificial metalloenzyme following the so-called ‘Trojan horse’ strategy. This new 1-Zn-NCS-3.24 biocatalyst showed an interesting catalytic activity as it was found able to catalyze the hydrolysis of the RNA model HPNP with a good catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM = 13.6 M−1 s−1 at pH 7) that places it among the best artificial catalysts for this reaction. Molecular modeling studies showed that a synergy between the binding of the steroid moiety and that of the BisPyPol into the protein binding site can explain the experimental results, indicating a better affinity of 1-Zn for the NCS-3.24 variant than testosterone and testosterone-hemisuccinate themselves. They also show that the artificial cofactor entirely fills the cavity, the testosterone part of 1-Zn being bound to one the two subdomains of the protein providing with good complementarities whereas its metal ion remains widely exposed to the solvent which made it a valuable tool for the catalysis of hydrolysis reactions, such as that of HPNP. Some possible improvements in the ‘Trojan horse’ strategy for obtaining better catalysts of selective reactions will be further studied.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Poly-pyridine
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 13.6 M-1 * s-1

Photoinduced Electron Transfer within Supramolecular Hemoprotein Co-Assemblies and Heterodimers Containing Fe and Zn Porphyrins

Oohora, K.

J. Inorg. Biochem. 2019, 193, 42-51, 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.01.001

Electron transfer (ET) events occurring within metalloprotein complexes are among the most important classes of reactions in biological systems. This report describes a photoinduced electron transfer between Zn porphyrin and Fe porphyrin within a supramolecular cytochrome b562 (Cyt b562) co-assembly or heterodimer with a well-defined rigid structure formed by a metalloporphyrin–heme pocket interaction and a hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface. The photoinduced charge separation (CS: kCS = 320–600 s−1) and subsequent charge recombination (CR: kCR = 580–930 s−1) were observed in both the Cyt b562 co-assembly and the heterodimer. In contrast, interestingly, no ET events were observed in a system comprised of a flexible and structurally-undefined co-assembly and heterodimers which lack the key hydrogen-bond interaction at the protein interface. Moreover, analysis of the kinetic constants of CS and CR of the heterodimer using the Marcus equation suggests that a single-step ET reaction occurs in the system. These findings provide strong support that the rigid hemoprotein-assembling system containing an appropriate hydrogen-bond network at the protein interface is essential for monitoring the ET reaction.


Metal: Fe; Zn
Ligand type: Protoporphyrin IX
Host protein: Cytochrome b562
Anchoring strategy: Cystein-maleimide; Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Electron transfer
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Selection and Evolution of Enzymes from a Partially Randomized Non-Catalytic Scaffold

Seelig, B.; Szostak, J.W.

Nature 2007, 448, 828-831, 10.1038/nature06032

Enzymes are exceptional catalysts that facilitate a wide variety of reactions under mild conditions, achieving high rate-enhancements with excellent chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities. There is considerable interest in developing new enzymes for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals1,2,3 and as tools for molecular biology. Methods have been developed for modifying and improving existing enzymes through screening, selection and directed evolution4,5. However, the design and evolution of truly novel enzymes has relied on extensive knowledge of the mechanism of the reaction6,7,8,9,10. Here we show that genuinely new enzymatic activities can be created de novo without the need for prior mechanistic information by selection from a naive protein library of very high diversity, with product formation as the sole selection criterion. We used messenger RNA display, in which proteins are covalently linked to their encoding mRNA11, to select for functional proteins from an in vitro translated protein library of >1012independent sequences without the constraints imposed by any in vivo step. This technique has been used to evolve new peptides and proteins that can bind a specific ligand12,13,14,15,16,17,18, from both random-sequence libraries12,14,15,16 and libraries based on a known protein fold17,18. We now describe the isolation of novel RNA ligases from a library that is based on a zinc finger scaffold18,19, followed by in vitro directed evolution to further optimize these enzymes. The resulting ligases exhibit multiple turnover with rate enhancements of more than two-million-fold.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: RNA ligation
Max TON: >7
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Sequence-Specific Peptide Cleavage Catalyzed by an Antibody

Lerner, R.A.

Science 1989, 243, 1184-1188, 10.1126/science.2922606

Monoclonal antibodies have been induced that are capable of catalyzing specific hydrolysis of the Gly-Phe bond of peptide substrates at neutral pH with a metal complex cofactor. The antibodies were produced by immunizing with a Co(III) triethylenetetramine (trien)-peptide hapten. These antibodies as a group are capable of binding trien complexes of not only Co(III) but also of numerous other metals. Six peptides were examined as possible substrates with the antibodies and various metal complexes. Two of these peptides were cleaved by several of the antibodies. One antibody was studied in detail, and cleavage was observed for the substrates with the trien complexes of Zn(II), Ga(III), Fe(III), In(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Lu(III), Mg(II), or Mn(II) as cofactors. A turnover number of 6 x 10(-4) per second was observed for these substrates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the use of cofactor-assisted catalysis in an antibody binding site to accomplish difficult chemical transformations.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Tetramine
Host protein: Antibody 28F11
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 400
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Structure and Dynamics of a Primordial Catalytic fold Generated by In Vitro Evolution

Seelig, B.

Nat. Chem. Biol. 2013, 9, 81-83, 10.1038/nchembio.1138

Engineering functional protein scaffolds capable of carrying out chemical catalysis is a major challenge in enzyme design. Starting from a noncatalytic protein scaffold, we recently generated a new RNA ligase by in vitro directed evolution. This artificial enzyme lost its original fold and adopted an entirely new structure with substantially enhanced conformational dynamics, demonstrating that a primordial fold with suitable flexibility is sufficient to carry out enzymatic function.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: RNA ligation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2LZE
Notes: ---