27 publications

27 publications

A Clamp-Like Biohybrid Catalyst for DNA Oxidation

Nolte, R.J.M.

Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 945-951, 10.1038/NCHEM.1752

In processive catalysis, a catalyst binds to a substrate and remains bound as it performs several consecutive reactions, as exemplified by DNA polymerases. Processivity is essential in nature and is often mediated by a clamp-like structure that physically tethers the catalyst to its (polymeric) template. In the case of the bacteriophage T4 replisome, a dedicated clamp protein acts as a processivity mediator by encircling DNA and subsequently recruiting its polymerase. Here we use this DNA-binding protein to construct a biohybrid catalyst. Conjugation of the clamp protein to a chemical catalyst with sequence-specific oxidation behaviour formed a catalytic clamp that can be loaded onto a DNA plasmid. The catalytic activity of the biohybrid catalyst was visualized using a procedure based on an atomic force microscopy method that detects and spatially locates oxidized sites in DNA. Varying the experimental conditions enabled switching between processive and distributive catalysis and influencing the sliding direction of this rotaxane-like catalyst.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: gp45
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1CZD
Notes: ---

A Dual Anchoring Strategy for the Localization and Activation of Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5384-5388, 10.1021/ja309974s

Artificial metalloenzymes result from anchoring an active catalyst within a protein environment. Toward this goal, various localization strategies have been pursued: covalent, supramolecular, or dative anchoring. Herein we show that introduction of a suitably positioned histidine residue contributes to firmly anchor, via a dative bond, a biotinylated rhodium piano stool complex within streptavidin. The in silico design of the artificial metalloenzyme was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The resulting artificial metalloenzyme displays significantly improved catalytic performance, both in terms of activity and selectivity in the transfer hydrogenation of imines. Depending on the position of the histidine residue, both enantiomers of the salsolidine product can be obtained.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 14
ee: 11
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Amino acid; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: 79
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Hybrid Ring- Opening Metathesis Polymerization Catalyst Based on an Engineered Variant of the Beta-Barrel Protein FhuA

Okuda, J.; Schwaneberg, U.

Chem. - Eur. J. 2013, 19, 13865-13871, 10.1002/chem.201301515

A β‐barrel protein hybrid catalyst was prepared by covalently anchoring a Grubbs–Hoveyda type olefin metathesis catalyst at a single accessible cysteine amino acid in the barrel interior of a variant of β‐barrel transmembrane protein ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA). Activity of this hybrid catalyst type was demonstrated by ring‐opening metathesis polymerization of a 7‐oxanorbornene derivative in aqueous solution.


Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Carbene
Host protein: FhuA ΔCVFtev
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Olefin metathesis
Max TON: 955
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ROMP

An Artificial Oxygenase Built from Scratch: Substrate Binding Site Identified Using a Docking Approach

Cavazza, C.; Ménage, S.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 3922-3925, 10.1002/anie.201209021

The substrate for an artificial iron monooxygenase was selected by using docking calculations. The high catalytic efficiency of the reported enzyme for sulfide oxidation was directly correlated to the predicted substrate binding mode in the protein cavity, thus illustrating the synergetic effect of the substrate binding site, protein scaffold, and catalytic site.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: BPMCN; BPMEN
Host protein: NikA
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 199
ee: ≤5
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

An Enantioselective Artificial Metallo-Hydratase

Roelfes, G.

Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 3578, 10.1039/c3sc51449h

Direct addition of water to alkenes to generate important chiral alcohols as key motif in a variety of natural products still remains a challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we report the first enantioselective artificial metallo-hydratase, based on the transcription factor LmrR, which catalyses the conjugate addition of water to generate chiral β-hydroxy ketones with enantioselectivities up to 84% ee. A mutagenesis study revealed that an aspartic acid and a phenylalanine located in the active site play a key role in achieving efficient catalysis and high enantioselectivities.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Host protein: LmrR
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 30
ee: 84
PDB: 3F8B
Notes: ---

Aqueous Phase Transfer Hydrogenation of Aryl Ketones Catalysed by Achiral Ruthenium(II) and Rhodium(III) Complexes and their Papain Conjugates

Salmain, M.

Appl. Organomet. Chem. 2013, 27, 6-12, 10.1002/aoc.2929

Several ruthenium and rhodium complexes including 2,2′‐dipyridylamine ligands substituted at the central N atom by an alkyl chain terminated by a maleimide functional group were tested along with a newly synthesized Rh(III) complex of unsubstituted 2,2′‐dipyridylamine as catalysts in the transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones in neat water with formate as hydrogen donor. All of them except one led to the secondary alcohol products with conversion rates depending on the metal complex. Site‐specific anchoring of the N‐maleimide complexes to the single free cysteine residue of the cysteine endoproteinase papain endowed this protein with transfer hydrogenase properties towards 2,2,2‐trifluoroacetophenone. Quantitative conversions were reached with the Rh‐based biocatalysts, while modest enantioselectivities were obtained in certain reactional conditions.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Poly-pyridine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 96
ee: 15
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Copper Enzymes for Asymmetric Diels–AlderReactions

Kamer, P.C.J.; Laan, W.

ChemCatChem 2013, 5, 1184-1191, 10.1002/cctc.201200671

The development of artificial copper enzymes from sterol carrier protein type 2 like domain (SCP‐2L) for the use in asymmetric catalysis was explored. For this purpose, proteins were modified with various nitrogen donor ligands. Maleimide‐containing ligands were found most suitable for selective cysteine bio‐conjugation. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to confirm copper binding to an introduced phenanthroline ligand, which was introduced in two unique cysteine containing SCP‐2L mutants. Copper adducts of several modified SCP‐2L templates were applied in asymmetric Diels–Alder reactions. A clear influence of both the protein environment and the introduced ligand was found in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction between azachalcone and cyclopentadiene. A promising enantioselectivity of 25 % ee was obtained by using SCP‐2L V83C modified with phenanthroline–maleimide ligand. Good endo selectivity was observed for SCP‐2L modified with the dipicolylamine‐based nitrogen donor ligand. These artificial metalloenzymes provide a suitable starting point for the implementation of various available techniques to optimise the performance of this system.


Metal: Cu
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 9.6
ee: 25
PDB: 1IKT
Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes and Metallopeptide Catalysts for Organic Synthesis

Review

Lewis, J.C.

ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 2954-2975, 10.1021/cs400806a

Transition metal catalysts and enzymes possess unique and often complementary properties that have made them important tools for chemical synthesis. The potential practical benefits of catalysts that combine these properties and a desire to understand how the structure and reactivity of metal and peptide components affect each other have driven researchers to create hybrid metal–peptide catalysts since the 1970s. The hybrid catalysts developed to date possess unique compositions of matter at the inorganic/biological interface that often pose significant challenges from design, synthesis, and characterization perspectives. Despite these obstacles, researchers have developed systems in which secondary coordination sphere effects impart selectivity to metal catalysts, accelerate chemical reactions, and are systematically optimized via directed evolution. This perspective outlines fundamental principles, key developments, and future prospects for the design, preparation, and application of peptide- and protein-based hybrid catalysts for organic transformations.


Notes: ---

Biomacromolecules as Ligands for Artificial Metalloenzymes

Review

Ward, T.R.

Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II 2013, 737-761, 10.1016/B978-0-08-097774-4.00626-4

First coordination sphere interactions usually are involved in metal-catalyzed enantioselective transformations: a chiral ligand directly linked to the metal dictates the enantiomeric outcome of a given reaction. A novel concept has emerged in the past 30 years: achiral metal complexes are inserted into proteins or DNA and the resulting artificial metalloenzymes catalyze various enantioselective transformations. In these hybrid catalysts, enantioselection is achieved with the help of the second coordination sphere, that is, a subtle combination of secondary interactions between the biomolecular scaffold, the catalyst, and the substrate. This chapter discusses the design of artificial metalloenzymes and their use in homogeneous catalysis.


Notes: Book chapter

Building Reactive Copper Centers in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

Emerson, J.P.

J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 18, 595-598, 10.1007/s00775-013-1009-1

Reengineering metalloproteins to generate new biologically relevant metal centers is an effective a way to test our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that steer chemical transformations in biological systems. Here, we report thermodynamic data characterizing the formation of two type-2 copper sites in carbonic anhydrase and experimental evidence showing one of these new, copper centers has characteristics similar to a variety of well-characterized copper centers in synthetic models and enzymatic systems. Human carbonic anhydrase II is known to bind two Cu2+ ions; these binding events were explored using modern isothermal titration calorimetry techniques that have become a proven method to accurately measure metal-binding thermodynamic parameters. The two Cu2+-binding events have different affinities (K a approximately 5 × 1012 and 1 × 1010), and both are enthalpically driven processes. Reconstituting these Cu2+ sites under a range of conditions has allowed us to assign the Cu2+-binding event to the three-histidine, native, metal-binding site. Our initial efforts to characterize these Cu2+ sites have yielded data that show distinctive (and noncoupled) EPR signals associated with each copper-binding site and that this reconstituted enzyme can activate hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the oxidation of 2-aminophenol.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 1RZC
Notes: Oxidation of 2-aminophenol with subsequent formation of 2-aminophenoxazinone. Reaction rate = 0.09 s-1

C(sp3)–H Bond Hydroxylation Catalyzed by Myoglobin Reconstituted with Manganese Porphycene

Hayashi, T

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 17282-17285, 10.1021/ja409404k

Myoglobin reconstituted with manganese porphycene was prepared in an effort to generate a new biocatalyst and was characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of the reconstituted protein reveals that the artificial cofactor is located in the intrinsic heme-binding site with weak ligation by His93. Interestingly, the reconstituted protein catalyzes the H2O2-dependent hydroxylation of ethylbenzene to yield 1-phenylethanol as a single product with a turnover number of 13 at 25 °C and pH 8.5. Native myoglobin and other modified myoglobins do not catalyze C–H hydroxylation of alkanes. Isotope effect experiments yield KIE values of 2.4 and 6.1 for ethylbenzene and toluene, respectively. Kinetic data, log kobs versus BDE(C(sp3)–H) for ethylbenzene, toluene, and cyclohexane, indicate a linear relationship with a negative slope. These findings clearly indicate that the reaction occurs via a rate-determining step that involves hydrogen-atom abstraction by a Mn(O) species and a subsequent rebound hydroxylation process which is similar to the reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphycene
Host protein: Myoglobin (Mb)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydroxylation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2WI8
Notes: ---

De Novo Design of Functional Proteins: Toward Artificial Hydrogenases

Review

Ghirlanda, G.

Biopolymers 2013, 100, 558-571, 10.1002/bip.22420

Over the last 25 years, de novo design has proven to be a valid approach to generate novel, well‐folded proteins, and most recently, functional proteins. In response to societal needs, this approach is been used increasingly to design functional proteins developed with an eye toward sustainable fuel production. This review surveys recent examples of bioinspired de novo designed peptide based catalysts, focusing in particular on artificial hydrogenases.


Notes: ---

Designing Enzyme-Like Catalysts: A Rhodium(II) Metallopeptide Case Study

Review

Ball, Z.T.

Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 560-570, 10.1021/ar300261h

Chemists have long been fascinated by metalloenzymes and their chemistry. Because enzymes are essential for biological processes and to life itself, they present a key to understanding the world around us. At the same time, if chemists could harness the reactivity and selectivity of enzymes in designed transition-metal catalysts, we would have access to a powerful practical advance in chemistry. But the design of enzyme-like catalysts from scratch presents enormous challenges. Simplified, designed systems often don’t provide the opportunity to mimic the complex features of enzymes such as selectivity in polyfunctional environments and access to reactive intermediates incompatible with bulk aqueous solution. Extensive efforts by numerous groups have led to remarkable designed metalloproteins that contain complex folds, including well-defined secondary and tertiary structure surrounding complex polymetallic centers. These structural achievements, however, have not yet led to general approaches to useful catalysts; continued efforts and new insights are needed. Our efforts have combined the attributes of enzymatic and traditional catalysis, bringing the benefits of polypeptide ligands to bear on completely nonbiological transition-metal centers. With a focus on designing useful catalytic activity, we have examined rhodium(II) carboxylates, bound to peptide chains through carboxylate side chains. Among other advantages, these complexes are stable and catalytically active in water. Our efforts have centered on two main interests: (1) understanding how Nature’s ligand of choice, polypeptides, can be used to control the chemistry of nonbiological metal centers, and (2) mimicking metalloenzyme characteristics in designed, nonbiological catalysts. This Account conveys our motivation and goals for these studies, outlines progress to date, and discusses the future of enzyme-like catalyst design. In particular, these studies have resulted in on-bead, high-throughput screens for asymmetric metallopeptide catalysts. In addition, peptide-based molecular recognition strategies have facilitated the site-specific modification of protein substrates. Molecular recognition enables site-specific, proximity-driven modification of a broad range of amino acids, and the concepts outlined here are compatible with natural protein substrates and with complex, cell-like environments. We have also explored rhodium metallopeptides as hybrid organic–inorganic inhibitor molecules that block protein–protein interactions.


Notes: ---

Designing Functional Metalloproteins: From Structural to Catalytic Metal Sites

Review

Pecoraro, V.L.

Coord. Chem. Rev. 2013, 257, 2565-2588, 10.1016/j.ccr.2013.02.007

Metalloenzymes efficiently catalyze some of the most important and difficult reactions in nature. For many years, coordination chemists have effectively used small molecule models to understand these systems. More recently, protein design has been shown to be an effective approach for mimicking metal coordination environments. Since the first designed proteins were reported, much success has been seen for incorporating metal sites into proteins and attaining the desired coordination environment but until recently, this has been with a lack of significant catalytic activity. Now there are examples of designed metalloproteins that, although not yet reaching the activity of native enzymes, are considerably closer. In this review, we highlight work leading up to the design of a small metalloprotein containing two metal sites, one for structural stability (HgS3) and the other a separate catalytic zinc site to mimic carbonic anhydrase activity (ZnN3O). The first section will describe previous studies that allowed for a high affinity thiolate site that binds heavy metals in a way that stabilizes three-stranded coiled coils. The second section will examine ways of preparing histidine-rich environments that lead to metal-based hydrolytic catalysts. We will also discuss other recent examples of the design of structural metal sites and functional metalloenzymes. Our work demonstrates that attaining the proper first coordination geometry of a metal site can lead to a significant fraction of catalytic activity, apparently independent of the type of secondary structure of the surrounding protein environment. We are now in a position to begin to meet the challenge of building a metalloenzyme systematically from the bottom-up by engineering and analyzing interactions directly around the metal site and beyond.


Notes: ---

Fluorescence-Based Assay for the Optimization of the Activity of Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase within a Biocompatible Compartment

Ward, T.R.

ChemCatChem 2013, 5, 720-723, 10.1002/cctc.201200834

The time capsules: The transfer hydrogenation of an enone‐bound fluorogenic compound by an artificial metalloenzyme leads to the release of fluorescent compound umbelliferone. Upon encapsulation of the hybrid catalyst inside a biocompatible compartment, the activity of the transfer hydrogenase is maintained for several months, even at micromolar concentrations.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Genetic Optimization of the Catalytic Efficiency of Artificial Imine Reductases Based on Biotin−Streptavidin Technology

Ward, T.R.

ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 1752-1755, 10.1021/cs400428r

Artificial metalloenzymes enable the engineering of the reaction microenvironment of the active metal catalyst by modification of the surrounding host protein. We report herein the optimization of an artificial imine reductase (ATHase) based on biotin–streptavidin technology. By introduction of lipophilic amino acid residues around the active site, an 8-fold increase in catalytic efficiency compared with the wild type imine reductase was achieved. Whereas substrate inhibition was encountered for the free cofactor and wild type ATHase, two engineered systems exhibited classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics, even at substrate concentrations of 150 mM with measured rates up to 20 min–1.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: 60
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Human Carbonic Anhydrase II as Host Protein for the Creation of Artificial Metalloenzymes: The Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

Ward, T.R.

Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 3269, 10.1039/c3sc51065d

In the presence of human carbonic anhydrase II, aryl-sulfonamide-bearing IrCp* pianostool complexes catalyze the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines. Critical cofactor–protein interactions revealed by the X-ray structure of [(η5-Cp*)Ir(pico 4)Cl] 9 ⊂ WT hCA II were genetically optimized to improve the catalytic performance of the artificial metalloenzyme (68% ee, kcat/KM 6.11 × 10−3 min−1 mM−1).


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: 47
ee: 70
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Influence of Active Site Location on Catalytic Activity in De Novo-Designed Zinc Metalloenzymes

Pecoraro, V.L.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5895-5903, 10.1021/ja401537t

While metalloprotein design has now yielded a number of successful metal-bound and even catalytically active constructs, the question of where to put a metal site along a linear, repetitive sequence has not been thoroughly addressed. Often several possibilities in a given sequence may exist that would appear equivalent but may in fact differ for metal affinity, substrate access, or protein dynamics. We present a systematic variation of active site location for a hydrolytically active ZnHis3O site contained within a de novo-designed three-stranded coiled coil. We find that the maximal rate, substrate access, and metal-binding affinity are dependent on the selected position, while catalytic efficiency for p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis can be retained regardless of the location of the active site. This achievement demonstrates how efficient, tailor-made enzymes which control rate, pKa, substrate and solvent access (and selectivity), and metal-binding affinity may be realized. These findings may be applied to the more advanced de novo design of constructs containing secondary interactions, such as hydrogen-bonding channels. We are now confident that changes to location for accommodating such channels can be achieved without location-dependent loss of catalytic efficiency. These findings bring us closer to our ultimate goal of incorporating the secondary interactions we believe will be necessary in order to improve both active site properties and the catalytic efficiency to be competitive with the native enzyme, carbonic anhydrase.


Metal: Hg; Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: TRI peptide
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 3PBJ
Notes: Influence of position of Zn and Hg ion on catalytic activity of the ArM tested. PDB ID 3PBJ = Structure of an analogue.

Metal-Catalyzed Organic Transformations Inside a Protein Scaffold Using Artificial Metalloenzymes

Review

Ward, T.R.

Coordination Chemistry in Protein Cages: Principles, Design, and Applications 2013, 203-219, 10.1002/9781118571811.ch8

Enzymes catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions with high selectivity and activity under mild conditions. The research strategy in the construction of artificial metalloenzyme relies on noncovalent attachment of the metal moiety using biotin‐(strept)avidin technology. The construction of artificial metalloenzyme can be carried out by anchoring a metal moiety within a protein scaffold with the help of an anchoring group. This chapter presents the results obtained upon applying this strategy toward the generation of artificial metalloenzymes for various enantioselective transformations. The palladium‐catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is a powerful tool for the elaboration of enantiopure high‐added value compounds. The current hypothesis is that proteins with a given catalytic function are difficult to use as host for the creation of artificial metalloenzymes. Proteins which merely act as transporters (myoglobin, serum albumins, (strept)avidin, etc.) may be more suited for the creation of artificial metalloenzymes.


Notes: Book chapter

Metal-Conjugated Affinity Labels: A New Concept to Create Enantioselective Artificial Metalloenzymes

Eppinger, J.

ChemistryOpen 2013, 2, 50-54, 10.1002/open.201200044

How to train a protein: Metal‐conjugated affinity labels were used to selectively position catalytically active metal centers in the binding pocket of proteases. The resulting artificial metalloenzymes achieve up to 82 % e.r. in the hydrogenation of ketones. The modular setup enables a rapid generation of artificial metalloenzyme libraries, which can be adapted to a broad range of catalytic conditions.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Cp*; Phosphine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 89
ee: 64
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Ru
Ligand type: Benzene; Phosphine
Host protein: Bromelain
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 44
ee: 20
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal Incorporated Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) Catalyzed Oxidation of Resveratrol: Selective Dimerization or Decomposition

Pan, Y.

RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 22976, 10.1039/c3ra43784a

Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is a commercially available and prevalently used peroxidase with no specific substrate binding domain. However, after being incorporated with different metal cations, new catalytic functions were found in biomimetic oxidation of resveratrol. Based on the results of screening, Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn incorporated enzymes showed distinctive effects, either decomposition or dimerization products were observed.


Metal: Ca; Co; Mn; Ni; Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of resveratrol. Dimerisation product obtained.

Metalloprotein Design

Review

Marshall, N.M.

Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II 2013, 565-593, 10.1016/B978-0-08-097774-4.00325-9

Metalloproteins catalyze numerous biological reactions ranging from photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation to signal transduction and complex chemical reactions. It is thus not surprising that metalloproteins account for almost one-half of the total number of proteins in nature. A considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the structure–function relationships using native proteins. However, it is an ultimate challenge to design metalloproteins using only the minimal features required to reproduce their functionalities as well as confer them with novel and unprecedented functionalities learned from the design process. In this chapter, we review some recent successes in the field of metalloprotein design using either de novo designed or native protein scaffolds. Furthermore, metalloprotein design employing unnatural amino acids or non-native cofactor are summarized. Finally, methodologies employing rational design, combinatorial selection, or both methods are also discussed.


Notes: Book chapter

Protein Delivery of a Ni Catalyst to Photosystem I for Light-Driven Hydrogen Production

Tiede, D.M.; Utschig, L.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 13246-13249, 10.1021/ja405277g

The direct conversion of sunlight into fuel is a promising means for the production of storable renewable energy. Herein, we use Nature’s specialized photosynthetic machinery found in the Photosystem I (PSI) protein to drive solar fuel production from a nickel diphosphine molecular catalyst. Upon exposure to visible light, a self-assembled PSI-[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 hybrid generates H2 at a rate 2 orders of magnitude greater than rates reported for photosensitizer/[Ni(P2PhN2Ph)2](BF4)2 systems. The protein environment enables photocatalysis at pH 6.3 in completely aqueous conditions. In addition, we have developed a strategy for incorporating the Ni molecular catalyst with the native acceptor protein of PSI, flavodoxin. Photocatalysis experiments with this modified flavodoxin demonstrate a new mechanism for biohybrid creation that involves protein-directed delivery of a molecular catalyst to the reducing side of Photosystem I for light-driven catalysis. This work further establishes strategies for constructing functional, inexpensive, earth-abundant solar fuel-producing PSI hybrids that use light to rapidly produce hydrogen directly from water.


Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Flavodoxin (Fld)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 94
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Photosystem I (PSI)
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 1870
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Recalculated TON

Spontaneous Activation of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases by an Inorganic [2Fe] Active Site Mimic

Happe, T.

Nat. Chem. Biol. 2013, 9, 607-609, 10.1038/Nchembio.1311

Hydrogenases catalyze the formation of hydrogen. The cofactor ('H-cluster') of [FeFe]-hydrogenases consists of a [4Fe-4S] cluster bridged to a unique [2Fe] subcluster whose biosynthesis in vivo requires hydrogenase-specific maturases. Here we show that a chemical mimic of the [2Fe] subcluster can reconstitute apo-hydrogenase to full activity, independent of helper proteins. The assembled H-cluster is virtually indistinguishable from the native cofactor. This procedure will be a powerful tool for developing new artificial H2-producing catalysts.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: CN; CO; Dithiolate
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Structural Basis for Enantioselectivity in the Transfer Hydrogenation of a Ketone Catalyzed by an Artificial Metalloenzyme

Fontecilla-Camps, J.C.

Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 2013, 3596-3600, 10.1002/ejic.201300592

The crystal structure of bovine β‐lactoglobulin bound to a complex consisting of a (η5‐Cp*)Rh(2,2′‐dipyridylamine) head and a lauric acid derived hydrophobic tail has been solved at 1.85 Å resolution. Previous work has shown that this hybrid catalyzes the transfer hydrogenation of an aryl ketone in neat water with formate as hydrogen donor with enantiomeric excess (ee) of about 26 %. Calculations using the X‐ray model indicate that the complex head can adopt discrete conformations, which may explain the ee observed.


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: 2,2'-Dipyridylamine; Cp*
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: 26
PDB: 4KII
Notes: ---

Structure and Dynamics of a Primordial Catalytic fold Generated by In Vitro Evolution

Seelig, B.

Nat. Chem. Biol. 2013, 9, 81-83, 10.1038/nchembio.1138

Engineering functional protein scaffolds capable of carrying out chemical catalysis is a major challenge in enzyme design. Starting from a noncatalytic protein scaffold, we recently generated a new RNA ligase by in vitro directed evolution. This artificial enzyme lost its original fold and adopted an entirely new structure with substantially enhanced conformational dynamics, demonstrating that a primordial fold with suitable flexibility is sufficient to carry out enzymatic function.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Reaction: RNA ligation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: 2LZE
Notes: ---

Synthetic Cascades are Enabled by Combining Biocatalysts with Artificial Metalloenzymes

Turner, N.J.; Ward, T.R.

Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 93-99, 10.1038/NCHEM.1498

Enzymatic catalysis and homogeneous catalysis offer complementary means to address synthetic challenges, both in chemistry and in biology. Despite its attractiveness, the implementation of concurrent cascade reactions that combine an organometallic catalyst with an enzyme has proven challenging because of the mutual inactivation of both catalysts. To address this, we show that incorporation of a d6-piano stool complex within a host protein affords an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) that is fully compatible with and complementary to natural enzymes, thus enabling efficient concurrent tandem catalysis. To illustrate the generality of the approach, the ATHase was combined with various NADH-, FAD- and haem-dependent enzymes, resulting in orthogonal redox cascades. Up to three enzymes were integrated in the cascade and combined with the ATHase with a view to achieving (i) a double stereoselective amine deracemization, (ii) a horseradish peroxidase-coupled readout of the transfer hydrogenase activity towards its genetic optimization, (iii) the formation of L-pipecolic acid from L-lysine and (iv) regeneration of NADH to promote a monooxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalization reaction.


Metal: Ir
Ligand type: Amino-sulfonamide; Cp*
Host protein: Streptavidin (Sav)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 100
ee: > 99
PDB: ---
Notes: Cascade