Artificial Metalloenzymes Containing an Organometallic Active SiteReview
Enzymes are the catalysts of the living world. Nature has tailored proteins to catalyze an incredibly wide range of reactions with exquisite selectivity and efficiency under very mild conditions of temperature, pH, pressure, and so on. Protein engineering combined with molecular modeling techniques affords tailor‐made biocatalysts for the industrial production of chiral synthons. Nonetheless, endowing a given protein scaffold with a totally new activity remains a challenging task for the biochemist. Among the current strategies to impart proteins with unnatural activity, those dealing with the construction of artificial metalloenzymes are particularly promising. By definition, artificial metalloenzymes are hybrid catalysts resulting from the incorporation of a transition metal species within a biomacromolecular scaffold. The rationale behind this concept is to combine the wide catalytic scope of transition metal complexes with the high activity and selectivity of biocatalysts. In most of the hybrid catalysts reported so far, the roles devoted to both partners are clearly separated: the metal complex being responsible for reactivity, while the protein environment is used to induce selectivity in the chemical process. In that, artificial metalloenzymes truly resemble enzymes whose efficiency relies on both the active site and the second sphere of coordination (also called the outer coordination sphere). In this chapter, we intend to give an overview of the various anchoring strategies reported over the last decade for the controlled, site‐selective attachment of nonnative metal cofactors within protein matrices together with the activity/selectivity displayed by these hybrid enzymes.
Notes: Book chapter