2 publications

2 publications

Artificial Hydrogenases Based on Cobaloximes and Heme Oxygenase

Artero, V.

ChemPlusChem 2016, 81, 1083-1089, 10.1002/cplu.201600218

The insertion of cobaloxime catalysts in the heme‐binding pocket of heme oxygenase (HO) yields artificial hydrogenases active for H2 evolution in neutral aqueous solutions. These novel biohybrids have been purified and characterized by using UV/visible and EPR spectroscopy. These analyses revealed the presence of two distinct binding conformations, thereby providing the cobaloxime with hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments, respectively. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical docking calculations found open and closed conformations of the binding pocket owing to mobile amino acid residues. HO‐based biohybrids incorporating a {Co(dmgH)2} (dmgH2=dimethylglyoxime) catalytic center displayed up to threefold increased turnover numbers with respect to the cobaloxime alone or to analogous sperm whale myoglobin adducts. This study thus provides a strong basis for further improvement of such biohybrids, using well‐designed modifications of the second and outer coordination spheres, through site‐directed mutagenesis of the host protein.

Metal: Co
Ligand type: Oxime
Host protein: Heme oxygenase (HO)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: H2 evolution
Max TON: 15.3
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Design of Metal Cofactors Activated by a Protein–Protein Electron Transfer System

Watanabe, Y.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2006, 103, 9416-9421, 10.1073/pnas.0510968103

Protein-to-protein electron transfer (ET) is a critical process in biological chemistry for which fundamental understanding is expected to provide a wealth of applications in biotechnology. Investigations of protein–protein ET systems in reductive activation of artificial cofactors introduced into proteins remains particularly challenging because of the complexity of interactions between the cofactor and the system contributing to ET. In this work, we construct an artificial protein–protein ET system, using heme oxygenase (HO), which is known to catalyze the conversion of heme to biliverdin. HO uses electrons provided from NADPH/cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) through protein–protein complex formation during the enzymatic reaction. We report that a FeIII(Schiff-base), in the place of the active-site heme prosthetic group of HO, can be reduced by NADPH/CPR. The crystal structure of the Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO composite indicates the presence of a hydrogen bond between the propionic acid carboxyl group and Arg-177 of HO. Furthermore, the ET rate from NADPH/CPR to the composite is 3.5-fold faster than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO, although the redox potential of Fe(10-CH2CH2COOH-Schiff-base)·HO (−79 mV vs. NHE) is lower than that of Fe(Schiff-base)·HO (+15 mV vs. NHE), where NHE is normal hydrogen electrode. This work describes a synthetic metal complex activated by means of a protein–protein ET system, which has not previously been reported. Moreover, the result suggests the importance of the hydrogen bond for the ET reaction of HO. Our Fe(Schiff-base)·HO composite model system may provide insights with regard to design of ET biosystems for sensors, catalysts, and electronics devices.

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Salophen
Host protein: Heme oxygenase (HO)
Anchoring strategy: Reconstitution
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: O2 reduction
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
Notes: ---