418 publications

418 publications

An asymmetric catalyst

Akabori, S.; Sakurai, S.

Nature 1956, 178, 323-324, 10.1038/178323b0

Asymmetric synthesis has hitherto succeeded only by using reagents or solvents having the asymmetric configuration.


Metal: Pd
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: Silk fibroin fibre
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: >22
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Catalytic Properties and Specificity of the Extracellular Nuclease of Staphylococcus Aureus

Cuatrecasas, P.

J. Biol. Chem. 1967, n/a

A spectrophotometric assay is described for staphylococcal nuclease, based on the increase in absorbance at 260 mp which accompanies deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA hy- drolysis. Initial velocities are proportional to enzyme con- centration over a 70-fold range. The enzyme has greater aflinity for DNA than for RNA, and activity is greater with heat-denatured DNA than with native DNA. No inhibitory products accumulate during the reaction. The enzyme is stable at pH values as low as 0.1, and in a concentration of 0.15 mg per ml there is no loss of activity after boiling (20 min). Dilute solutions are protected from heat inactivation by a mixture of albumin and Ca++ as well as by denatured DNA. The optimum pH for RNase and DNase activities is be- tween 9 and 10, depending on the Ca++ concentration. At higher pH values, less Ca+f is required. The inhibitory effect of high Ca+f concentrations is more pronounced at higher pH values. Considerable DNase but no RNase activity results if Ca++ is replaced by Sr+f, while Fe++ and C&f cause minimal activation. A number of heavy metal cations inhibit DNase and RNase activities competitively with Ca++; Hg++, Zn++, and Cd++ are the most potent of these. Activities resulting from combinations of DNA and RNA with Ca+f or Sr+f suggest that these substrates are hy- drolyzed by the same or closely related regions on the en- zyme. Enzyme activity toward DNA and RNA is strongly in- hibited by 5’-phosphoryl (not by 2’- or 3’-phosphoryl) deriva- tives of deoxyadenylic, adenylic, and deozythymidylic acids, and deozythymidine 3’,5’-diphosphate is the most po- tent inhibitor. High activity is obtained with polyadenylic acid compared to polyuridylic acid, polycytidylic acid, and RNA. These tidings are consistent with the known action of the enzyme (cleavage of the 5’-phosphoryl ester bond), and suggest that the differential activity toward DNA and RNA results at least in part from differences in the afhnity toward the constituent bases of these nucleic acids.


Metal: Sr
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Nuclease from S. aureus
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: PMID 4290246; DNA cleavage

Metal Ion Dependent Binding of Sulphonamide to Carbonic Anhydrase

Coleman, J.E.

Nature 1967, 214, 193-194, 10.1038/214193a0

ACETAZOLAMIDE (2-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-sulphonamide, ‘Diamox’) is the most potent known inhibitor of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This communication reports the direct demonstration that binding of acetazolamide to human carbonic anhydrase requires the presence of a metal ion at the active site and that binding depends on the species of divalent metal ion present. Zinc (II) and cobalt (II) ions are the only ions which induce the formation of very stable acetazolamide carbonic anhydrase complexes and are also the ions which most effectively catalyse the hydration of carbon dioxide and the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Metal-binding monodentate ions, CN−, HS−, OCN−, and N3−, known as effective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, compete for the acetazolamide binding site of the zinc enzyme.


Metal: Co
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Human carbonic anhydrase
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: CO2 hydration

Metal: Co
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Human carbonic anhydrase
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Ester cleavage

Rare Earth Metal Ions as Probes of Calcium Binding Sites in Proteins: Neodynium Acceleration of the Activation of Trypsinogen

Birnbaum, E.R.; Darnall, D.W.

J. Biol. Chem. 1970, n/a

The rate of activation of the conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin has been found to be greatly accelerated by the neodymium(III) ion. The similarity of this process to the calcium(II) ion activation suggests that both metal ions bind at identical sites in trypsinogen. The rate of activation in the presence of the neodymium ion is much greater than that of the calcium ion, probably reflecting the increased stability constant of the neodymium-protein complex. In contrast to the calcium ion, however, neodymium(III) can be scrutinized by a variety of spectral and magnetic techniques which should reveal information concerning the calcium ion binding sites in proteins. Since the chemistry and the range of sires of the rare earth metal ions are so similar to that of the calcium ion, it is suggested that generally these ions should make good replacement ions for probing the calcium ion binding sites of proteins and enzymes.


Metal: Nd
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: PMID 5484822

Studies on the Oxidase Activity of Copper (II) Carboxypeptidase A

Kaiser, E.T.

J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1976, 830, 10.1039/C39760000830

Copper(II) carboxypeptidase A catalyses the oxidation of ascorbic acid and this reaction is inhibited by α-benzylsuccinate, a known inhibitor of the thiolesterase action of the copper enzyme; the pH dependencies of kcat and kcat/Km are similar near pH 7 to those seen for the peptidase and esterase activities of native carboxypeptidase A.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Carboxypeptidase A
Anchoring strategy: Metal substitution
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Oxidation of vitamin C

Conversion of a Protein to a Homogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalyst by Site-Specific Modification with a Diphosphinerhodium (I) Moiety

Whitesides, G.M.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 306-307, 10.1021/ja00469a064

n/a


Metal: Rh
Ligand type: Phosphine
Host protein: Avidin (Av)
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Hydrogenation
Max TON: 500
ee: 41
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

The Bovine Serum Albumin-2-Phenylpropane-1,2-diolatodioxoosmium(VI) Complex as an Enantioselective Catalyst for cis-Hydroxylation of Alkenes

Kokubo, T.; Okano, M.

J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1983, 0, 769-770, 10.1039/C39830000769

The 1:1 complex between an osmate ester and bovine serum albumin was found to be effective as an enantioselective catalyst in the cis-hydroxylation of alkenes, affording diols in up to 68% e.e. and turnover of the catalyst with t-butyl hydroperoxide.


Metal: Os
Ligand type: Undefined
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Dihydroxylation
Max TON: 40
ee: 68
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Flavohemoglobin: A Semisynthetic Hydroxylase Acting in the Absence of Reductase

Kaiser, E.T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109, 606-607, 10.1021/ja00236a062

n/a


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Hemoglobin
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Chemical Conversion of a DNA-Binding Protein into a Site-Specific Nuclease

Sigman, D.S.

Science 1987, 237, 1197-1201, 10.1126/science.2820056

The tryptophan gene (trp) repressor of Escherichia coli has been converted into a site-specific nuclease by covalently attaching it to the 1,10-phenanthroline-copper complex. In its cuprous form, the coordination complex with hydrogen peroxide as a coreactant cleaves DNA by oxidatively attacking the deoxyribose moiety. The chemistry for the attachment of 1,10-phenanthroline to the trp repressor involves modification of lysyl residues with iminothiolane followed by alkylation of the resulting sulfhydryl groups with 5-iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline. The modified trp repressor cleaves the operators of aroH and trpEDCBA upon the addition of cupric ion and thiol in a reaction dependent on the corepressor L-tryptophan. Scission was restricted to the binding site for the repressor, defined by deoxyribonuclease I footprinting. Since DNA-binding proteins have recognition sequences approximately 20 base pairs long, the nucleolytic activities derived from them could be used to isolate long DNA fragments for sequencing or chromosomal mapping.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidative cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Synthesis of a Sequence-Specific DNA-Cleaving Peptide

Dervan, P.B.

Science 1987, 238, 1129-1132, 10.1126/science.3120311

A synthetic 52-residue peptide based on the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of Hin recombinase (139-190) has been equipped with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at the amino terminus. In the presence of Fe(II), this synthetic EDTA-peptide cleaves DNA at Hin recombination sites. The cleavage data reveal that the amino terminus of Hin(139-190) is bound in the minor groove of DNA near the symmetry axis of Hin recombination sites. This work demonstrates the construction of a hybrid peptide combining two functional domains: sequence-specific DNA binding and DNA cleavage.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: EDTA
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: DNA cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Generation of a Hybrid Sequence-Specific Single Stranded Deoxyribonuclease

Schultz, P.G.

Science 1987, 238, 1401-1403, 10.1126/science.3685986

The relatively nonspecific single-stranded deoxyribonuclease, staphylococcal nuclease, was selectively fused to an oligonucleotide binding site of defined sequence to generate a hybrid enzyme. A cysteine was substituted for Lys116 in the enzyme by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis and coupled to an oligonucleotide that contained a 3'-thiol. The resulting hybrid enzyme cleaved single-stranded DNA at sites adjacent to the oligonucleotide binding site.


Metal: Ca
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: Staphylococcal nuclease
Anchoring strategy: ---
Optimization: ---
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Helichrome: Synthesis and Enzymatic Activity of a Designed Hemeprotein

Kaiser, E.T.; Sasaki, T.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 380-381, 10.1021/ja00183a065

n/a


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Artificial construct
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Only 60 amino acids

Sequence-Specific Peptide Cleavage Catalyzed by an Antibody

Lerner, R.A.

Science 1989, 243, 1184-1188, 10.1126/science.2922606

Monoclonal antibodies have been induced that are capable of catalyzing specific hydrolysis of the Gly-Phe bond of peptide substrates at neutral pH with a metal complex cofactor. The antibodies were produced by immunizing with a Co(III) triethylenetetramine (trien)-peptide hapten. These antibodies as a group are capable of binding trien complexes of not only Co(III) but also of numerous other metals. Six peptides were examined as possible substrates with the antibodies and various metal complexes. Two of these peptides were cleaved by several of the antibodies. One antibody was studied in detail, and cleavage was observed for the substrates with the trien complexes of Zn(II), Ga(III), Fe(III), In(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Lu(III), Mg(II), or Mn(II) as cofactors. A turnover number of 6 x 10(-4) per second was observed for these substrates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the use of cofactor-assisted catalysis in an antibody binding site to accomplish difficult chemical transformations.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Tetramine
Host protein: Antibody 28F11
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Max TON: 400
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Autoxidation of Ascorbic Acid Catalyzed by a Semisynthetic Enzyme

Kaiser, E.T.

Biopolymers 1990, 29, 39-43, 10.1002/bip.360290107

The semisyntehtic enzyme 6 was prepared by alkylation of the cysteine‐25 sulfhydryl group of papain with the bipyridine 5 and was shown to stoichiometrically bind copper ion; 7 catalyzed the autoxidation of ascorbic acid derivatives with saturation kinetics approximately 20‐fold faster than a model system using 3‐Cu(II).


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Bipyridine
Host protein: Papain (PAP)
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Towards Antibody-Mediated Metallo-Porphyrin Chemistry

Keinan, E.

Pure Appl. Chem. 1990, 62, 2013-2019, 10.1351/pac199062102013

An attempt was made to mimic cytochrome P-450-like activity using antibodies elicited against metallo-porphyrins. Monoclonal antibodies raised against a water-soluble Sn(1V) porphyrin complex (1) exhibited Specificity for a variety of monomeric metalloporphyrins, as well as for the b-0x0-Fe(III) porphyrin dimer 2. Some antibodies were found to be more selective for the monomer 1 than for the dimer 2, suggesting an "edge-on" recognition of the planar porphyrin molecule. The catalytic activity of the antibody-metalloporphyrin complexes was investigated using the epoxidation of styrene by iodosobenzene as a model reaction. Three biphasic media were studied for this reaction: reverse micelles, microemulsions, and solid catalyst in organic solvent. The most promising results were obtained with solid catalyst (obtained via lyophilization of equimolar amounts of Mn(TCP)Cl and specific antibody) in dry CHzClz at room temperature, as indicated by the high turnover numbers of the catalyst. A difference in the relative activity of the various monoclonal antibodies (MABs) was noted. The anti-1 antibodies displayed ca. 30-60% higher activity compared to a nonrelevant MAB.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 549
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Conversion of a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Protein into a Site-Specific DNA Cleavage Agent

Ebright, R.H.; Gunasekeram, A.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1990, 87, 2882-2886, 10.1073/pnas.87.8.2882

Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein [de Crombrugghe, B., Busby, S. & Buc, H. (1984) Science 224, 831-838; and Pabo, C. & Sauer, R. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 293-321]. In this work, CAP has been converted into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent by incorporation of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline at amino acid 10 of the helix-turn-helix motif. [(N-Acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP binds to a 22-base-pair DNA recognition site with Kobs = 1 x 10(8) M-1. In the presence of Cu(II) and reducing agent, [(N-acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP cleaves DNA at four adjacent nucleotides on each DNA strand within the DNA recognition site. The DNA cleavage reaction has been demonstrated using 40-base-pair and 7164-base-pair DNA substrates. The DNA cleavage reaction is not inhibited by dam methylation of the DNA substrate. Such semisynthetic site-specific DNA cleavage agents have potential applications in chromosome mapping, cloning, and sequencing.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Oxidative cleavage
Max TON: <1
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Engineered sequence specificity

Peroxidase Activity of an Antibody-Heme Complex

Schultz, P.G.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 9414-9415, 10.1021/ja00181a065

The specificity and diversity of the immune system have recently been exploited in the generation of antibodies that catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions.1·2 Several general strategies for the design of catalytic antibodies have emerged, including the use of antibody binding energy to enhance the chemical reactivity of a cofactor or to position a cofactor and a substrate in close proximity.3,4 An intriguing target for antibody-cofactor catalysis is the oxidative reactions characteristic of heme proteins. Here we report that antibodies specific for A-methylmesoporphyrin IX bind iron(III) mesoporphyrin IX and that the resulting complex catalyzes the oxidation of several substrates. These studies are a first step toward the development of selective antibody-heme monooxygenase catalysts.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody7G12-A10-G1-A12
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 200-500
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Highly Specific Metal-Activated Catalytic Antibody

Janda, K.D.; Lerner, R.A.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 4906-4907, 10.1021/ja00064a068

n/a


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: IgG 84A3
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Semisynthesis of Bipyridyl-Alanine Cytochrome c Mutants: Novel Proteins with Enhanced Electron-Transfer Properties

Gray, H.B.; Imperiali, B.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 8455-8456, 10.1021/ja00071a068

n/a


Metal: Fe; Ru
Ligand type: Bipyridine; Porphyrin
Host protein: Horse heart cytochrome c
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Electron transfer
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: No catalysis

Engineered Metal Regulation of Trypsin Specificity

Craik, C.S.

Biochemistry 1995, 34, 2172-2180, 10.1021/bi00007a010

Histidine substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin by creating metal binding sites for Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. The sites bridge the substrate and enzyme on the leaving-group side of the scissile bond. Application of simple steric and geometric criteria to a crystallographically derived enzyme- substrate model suggested that histidine specificity at the P2' position might be acheived by a tridentate site involving amino acid residues 143 and 151 of trypsin. Trypsin N143H/E151H hydrolyzes a P2'- His-containing peptide (AGPYAHSS) exclusively in the presence of nickel or zinc with a high level of catalytic efficiency. Since cleavage following the tyrosine residue is normally highly disfavored by trypsin, this result demonstrates that a metal cofactor can be used to modulate specificity in a designed fashion. The same geometric criteria applied in the primary SI binding pocket suggested that the single-site mutation D189H might effect metal-dependent His specificity in trypsin. However, kinetic and crystallographic analysis of this variant showed that the design was unsuccessful because His 189 rotates away from substrate causing a large perturbation in adjacent surface loops. This observation suggests that the reason specificity modification at the trypsin S1 site requires extensive mutagenesis is because the pocket cannot deform locally to accommodate alternate PI side chains. By taking advantage of the extended subsites, an alternate substrate specificity has been engineered into trypsin.


Metal: Zn
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Metal: Ni
Ligand type: Amino acid
Host protein: Trypsin
Anchoring strategy: Dative
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: Substrate specificty

Thermostable Peroxidase-Activity with a Recombinant Antibody L-Chain-Porphyrin Fe(III) Complex

Imanaka, T.

FEBS Lett. 1995, 375, 273-276, 10.1016/0014-5793(95)01224-3

In order to engineer a new type of catalytic antibody, we attempt to use a monoclonal antibody L chain as a host protein for a porphyrin. TCPP (meso‐tetrakis(4‐carboxyphenyl)porphyine) was chemically synthesized and Balb/c mice were immunized using TCPP as a hapten. Two hybridoma cells (03‐1, 13‐1), that produce monoclonal antibody against TCPP, were obtained. Genes for both H and L chains of monoclonal antibodies were cloned, sequenced and overexpressed using E. coli as a host. ELISA and fluorescence quenching method show that the independent antibody L chains from both Mab03‐1 and Mab13‐1 have specific interaction with TCPP. Furthermore, the recombinant antibody L chain from Mab13‐1 exhibits much higher peroxidase activity than TCPP Fe(III) alone. The enzyme activity was detectable with pyrogallol and ABTS (2,2‐azinobis‐3‐ethylbenzthiazolin‐6‐sulfonic acid) but not with catechol. This new catalytic antibody was extremely thermostable. Optimum temperature of the peroxidase reaction by the complex of 13‐1L chain and TCPP Fe(III) was 90°C, while that the TCPP Fe(III) alone was 60°C.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Peroxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Artificial Peroxidase-Like Hemoproteins Based on Antibodies Constructed from a Specifically Designed Ortho-Carboxy Substituted Tetraarylporphyrin Hapten and Exhibiting a High Affinity for Iron-Porphyrins

Mahy, J.-P.

FEBS Lett. 1996, 395, 73-76, 10.1016/0014-5793(96)01006-X

In order to get catalytic antibodies modelling peroxidases BALB/c mice have been immunized with iron(III)α,α,α,β‐mesotetrakis‐orthocarboxyphenyl‐porphyrin (Fe(ToCPP))‐KLH conjugates. Monoclonal antibodies have been produced by the hybridoma technology. Three antibodies, 2 IgG, and 1 IgG2a, were found to bind both Fe(ToCPP) and the free base ToCPPH2 with similar binding constants. None of those antibodies was found to bind tetraphenylporphyrin. Those results suggest that the recognition of Fe(ToCPP) by the antibodies was mainly due to the binding of the carboxylate groups to some amino acid residues of the protein. True K d values of 2.9 × 10−9 M and 5.5 × 10−9 M have been determined for the two IgG1‐Fe(ToCPP) complexes. Those values are the best ones ever reported for iron‐porphyrin‐antibody complexes. UV‐vis. studies have shown that the two IgG1‐Fe(ToCPP) complexes were highspin hexacoordinate iron(III) complexes, with no amino acid residue binding the iron, whereas the IgG2α‐Fe(ToCPP) complex was a low‐spin hexacoordinate iron(III) complex with two strong ligands binding the iron atom. Both IgG1 ‐Fe(ToCPP) complexes were found to catalyze the oxidation of 2,2′‐azinobis (3ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (ABTS) 5‐fold more efficiently than Fe(ToCPP) alone whereas the binding of IgG2a to this iron‐porphyrin had no effect on its catalytic activity. k cat values of 100 min−1 and 63 min−1 and k cat/K m. values of 105 M−1 s−1 and 119 M−1 s−1 have been found respectively for the two IgG1‐Fe(ToCPP) complexes.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 13G10
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: kcat/KM = 105 M-1 * s-1

Pyridoxamine-Amino Acid Chimeras in Semisynthetic Aminotransferase Mimics

Imperiali, B.

Prot. Eng. 1997, 10, 691-698, 10.1093/protein/10.6.691

The transaminase activity of two new semisynthetic RNase-S proteins incorporating a pyridoxamine moiety at the active site has been evaluated. A chemically competent derivative of pyridoxamine phosphate was incorporated into the C-peptide fragments of these non-covalent protein complexes in the form of an unnatural coenzyme-amino acid chimera, 'Pam'. The chimeric Pam residue integrates the heterocyclic functionality of pyridoxamine phosphate into the side chain of an alpha-amino acid and was introduced instead of Phe8 into the C-peptide sequence via standard solid phase methodology. The two semisynthetic Pam-RNase constructs were designed to probe whether the native ribonuclease catalytic machinery could be enlisted to modulate a pyridoxamine-dependent transamination reaction. Both RNase complexes, H1SP and S1SP, exhibited modest rate enhancements in the Cu(II)-assisted transamination of pyruvate to alanine under single turnover conditions, relative to 5'-deoxypyridoxamine and the uncomplexed C-peptide fragments. Furthermore, multiple turnovers of substrates were achieved in the presence of added L-phenylalanine due to recycling of the pyridoxamine moiety. The modest chiral inductions observed in the catalytic production of alanine and the differences in reactivity between the two proteins could be rationalized by the participation of a general base (His12) in complex H1SP, and by the increased tolerance for large amino acid substrates by complex S1SP, which contains serine at this position. The pyridoxamine-amino acid chimera will be useful in the future for examining the coenzyme structure/ function relationships in a native-like peptidyl architecture.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: RNase A
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: Chemical
Reaction: Transamination
Max TON: ---
ee: 31
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

A Semisynthetic Metalloenzyme based on a Protein Cavity that Catalyzes the Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Ester and Amide Substrates

Distefano, M.D.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11643-11652, 10.1021/JA970820K

In an effort to prepare selective and efficient catalysts for ester and amide hydrolysis, we are designing systems that position a coordinated metal ion within a defined protein cavity. Here, the preparation of a protein-1,10-phenanthroline conjugate and the hydrolytic chemistry catalyzed by this construct are described. Iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline was used to modify a unique cysteine residue in ALBP (adipocyte lipid binding protein) to produce the conjugate ALBP-Phen. The resulting material was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry, UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography, and thiol titration. The stability of ALBP-Phen was evaluated by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation experiments, and the ability of the conjugate to bind Cu(II) was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) catalyzes the enantioselective hydrolysis of several unactivated amino acid esters under mild conditions (pH 6.1, 25 °C) at rates 32−280-fold above the background rate in buffered aqueous solution. In 24 h incubations 0.70 to 7.6 turnovers were observed with enantiomeric excesses ranging from 31% ee to 86% ee. ALBP-Phen-Cu(II) also promotes the hydrolysis of an aryl amide substrate under more vigorous conditions (pH 6.1, 37 °C) at a rate 1.6 × 104-fold above the background rate. The kinetics of this amide hydrolysis reaction fit the Michaelis−Menten relationship characteristic of enzymatic processes. The rate enhancements for ester and amide hydrolysis reported here are 102−103 lower than those observed for free Cu(II) but comparable to those previously reported for Cu(II) complexes.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 1 to 8
ee: 39 to 86
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Peroxidation of Pyrogallol by Antibody−Metalloporphyrin Complexes

Harada, A.

Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 6099-6102, 10.1021/ic9610849

Antibody 03-1, which was prepared by immunization with meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) conjugate, has been found to bind strongly to Mn(III)−TCPP and Fe(III)−TCPP complexes with dissociation constants of 4.1 × 10-7 and 1.5 × 10-7 M, respectively, although other monoclonal antibodies raised against TCPP did not bind to these TCPP−metal complexes. The complexes of antibody 03-1 with Mn(III)−TCPP and Fe(III)−TCPP were found to catalyze oxidation of pyrogallol selectively. A Lineweaver-Burk plot for the oxidation of pyrogallol by the antibody−Fe−TCPP complex showed Km = 4.0 mM and kcat = 50 min-1. Studies on the effect of the molar ratio of the antibody to metalloporphyrin on the catalytic activity showed that a 1:1 complex was the most effective for the reaction. The effect of salt (NaCl) on the reaction showed that electrostatic interaction between the antibody and the metalloporphyrin was important for the reaction. The antibody−metalloporphyrin complexes are stable enough to show catalytic activity in the presence of an excess amount of H2O2.


Metal: Mn
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 03-1
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 200
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 03-1
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: ---
Max TON: 300
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Enantioselective Sulfoxidation Mediated by Vanadium-Incorporated Phytase: A Hydrolase Acting as a Peroxidase

Sheldon, R.A.

Chem. Commun. 1998, 1891-1892, 10.1039/a804702b

Phytase (E.C. 3.1.3.8), which in vivo mediates the hydrolysis of phosphate esters, catalyses the enantioselective oxidation of thioanisole with H2O2, both in the presence and absence of vanadate ion, affording the S-sulfoxide in up to 66% ee at 100% conversion.


Metal: V
Ligand type: Undefined
Host protein: Phytase
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: ~194
ee: 66
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Metal: V
Ligand type: Oxide
Host protein: Phytase
Anchoring strategy: Undefined
Optimization: ---
Reaction: Sulfoxidation
Max TON: 550
ee: 66
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Active Site Topology of Artificial Peroxidase-like Hemoproteins Based on Antibodies Constructed from a Specifically Designed Ortho-carboxy-substituted Tetraarylporphyrin

Mahy, J.-P.

Eur. J. Biochem. 1998, 257, 121-130, 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2570121.x

The topology of the binding site has been studied for two monoclonal antibodies 13G10 and 14H7, elicited against iron(III)‐α,α,α,β‐meso‐tetrakis(ortho‐carboxyphenyl)porphyrin {α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin]}, and which exhibit in the presence of this α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin] cofactor a peroxidase activity. A comparison of the dissociation constants of the complexes of 13G10 and 14H7 with various tetra‐aryl‐substituted porphyrin has shown that : (a) the central iron(III) atom of α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin] is not recognized by either of the two antibodies; and (b) the ortho‐carboxylate substituents of the meso‐phenyl rings of α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin] are essential for the recognition of the porphyrin by 13G10 and 14H7. Measurement of the dissociation constants for the complexes of 13G10 and 14H7 with the four atropoisomers of (o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrinH2 as well as mono‐ and di‐ortho‐carboxyphenyl‐substituted porphyrins suggests that the three carboxylates in the α, α, β position are recognized by both 13G10 and 14H7 with the two in the α, β positions more strongly bound to the antibody protein. Accordingly, the topology of the active site of 13G10 and 14H7 has roughly two‐thirds of the α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin] cofactor inserted into the binding site of the antibodies, with one of the aryl ring remaining outside. Three of the carboxylates are bound to the protein but no amino acid residue acts as an axial ligand to the iron atom. Chemical modification of lysine, histidine, tryptophan and arginine residues has shown that only modification of arginine residues causes a decrease in both the binding of α,α,α,β‐Fe[(o‐COOHPh)4‐porphyrin] and the peroxidase activity of both antibodies. Consequently, at least one of the carboxylates of the hapten is bound to an arginine residue and no amino acids such as lysine, histidine or tryptophan participate in the catalysis of the heterolytic cleavage of the O‐O bond of H2O2. In addition, the amino acid sequence of both antibodies not only reveals the presence of arginine residues, which could be those involved in the binding of the carboxylates of the hapten, but also the presence of several amino acids in the complementary determining regions which could bind other carboxylates through a network of H bonds.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: ---
Host protein: Antibody 13G10 / 14H7
Anchoring strategy: Antibody
Optimization: Chemical & genetic
Reaction: Peroxidation
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: ---

Hemoabzymes - Different Strategies for Obtaining Artificial Hemoproteins based on Antibodies

Review

Mahy, J.-P.

Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 1998, 75, 103-127, 10.1007/Bf02787712

Besides existing models of chemical or biotechnological origin for hemoproteins like peroxidases and cytochromes P450, catalytic antibod ies (Abs) with a metalloporphyrin cofactor represent a promising alter native route to catalysts tailored for selective oxidation reactions. A brief overview of the literature shows that, until now, the first strategy for obtaining such artificial hemoproteins has been to produce antipor phyrin Abs, raised against various free-base, N-substituted, Sn-,Pd-,or Fe-porphyrins. Four of them exhibited, in the presence of the corre sponding Fe-porphyrin cofactor, a significant peroxidase activity, with kcat/Km values of 102 to 5 × 103/M/s. This value remained low when com pared to that of peroxidases, probably because neither a proximal ligand of the Fe, nor amino acid residues participating in the catalysis of the heterolytic cleavage of the O—O bond of H2O2, have been induced in those Abs. This strategy has been shown to be insufficient for the elabo ration of effective models of cytochromes P450, because only one set of Abs, raised againstmeso-tetrakis(para-carboxyvinylphenyl)porphyrin, was reported to catalyze the nonstereoselective oxidation of styrene by iodosyl benzene using a Mn-porphyrin cofactor, and attempts to gener ate Abs having binding sites for both the substrate and the metallopor phyrin cofactor, using as a hapten a porphyrin covalently linked to the substrate, were not successful. A second strategy is then proposed, which involves the chemical labeling of antisubstrate Abs with a metallopor phyrin. As an example, preliminary results are presented on the covalent linkage of an Fe-porphyrin to an antiestradiol Ab, in order to obtain semisynthetic catalytic Abs able to catalyze the selective oxidation of steroids.


Notes: ---

Artificial Metalloenzymes based on Protein Cavities: Exploring the Effect of Altering the Metal Ligand Attachment Position by Site Directed Mutagenesis

Distefano, M.D.

Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1999, 9, 79-84, 10.1016/S0960-894X(98)00684-2

In an effort to construct catalysts with enzyme-like properties, we are employing a small, cavity-containing protein as a scaffold for the attachment of catalytic groups. In earlier work we demonstrated that a phenanthroline ligand could be introduced into the cavity of the protein ALBP and used to catalyze ester hydrolysis. To examine the effect of positioning the phenanthroline catalyst at different locations wthin the protein cavity, three new constucts — Phen60, Phen72 and Phen104 — were prepared. Each new conjugate was characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, guanidine hydrochloride denaturation, gel filtration chromatography, and CD spectroscopy to confirm the preparation of the desired contruct. Analysis of reactions containing Ala-OiPr showed that Phen60 catalyzed ester hydrolysis with less selectivity than ALBP-Phen while Phen72 promoted this same reaction with higher selectivity. Reactions with Tyr-OMe were catalyzed with higher selectivity by Phen60 and more rapidly by Phen104. These results demonstrate that both the rates and selectivities of hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by these constructs are dependent on the precise site of attachment of the metal ligand within the protein cavity.


Metal: Cu
Ligand type: Phenanthroline
Anchoring strategy: Covalent
Optimization: Genetic
Max TON: 1 to 4
ee: 61 to 94
PDB: ---
Notes: Varied attachment position

Studies of the Reactivity of Artificial Peroxidase-Like Hemoproteins Based on Antibodies Elicited Against a Specifically Designed ortho-Carboxy Substituted Tetraarylporphyrin

Mahy, J.-P.

FEBS Lett. 1999, 443, 229-234, 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01703-7

The temperature and pH dependence as well as the selectivity of the peroxidase activity of a complex associating a monoclonal antibody 13G10 with its iron(III)‐α,α,α,β‐meso‐tetrakis(ortho‐carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (Fe(ToCPP)) hapten have been studied and compared to those of Fe(ToCPP) alone. It first appears that the peroxidase activity of the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex is remarkably thermostable and remains about 5 times higher than that of Fe(ToCPP) alone until at least 80°C. Secondly, this complex is able to use not only H2O2 as oxidant but also a wide range of hydroperoxides such as alkyl, aralkyl and fatty acid hydroperoxides and catalyze their reduction 2–6‐fold faster than Fe(ToCPP) alone. It is also able to catalyze the oxidation by H2O2 of a variety of reducing cosubstrates such as 2,2′‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS), o‐phenylenediamine (OPD), 3,3′,5,5′‐tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and 3,3′‐dimethoxybenzidine 3–8‐fold faster than Fe(ToCPP) alone, the bicyclic aromatic ABTS and TMB being the best reducing cosubstrates. Finally, a pH dependence study, between pH 4.6 and 7.5, of the oxidation of ABTS by H2O2 in the presence of either 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) or Fe(ToCPP) shows that K m(H2O2) values vary very similarly for both catalysts, whereas very different variations are found for the k cat values. With Fe(ToCPP) as catalyst the k cat value remains constant around 100 min−1 whereas with the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex, it increases sharply below pH 5 to reach 540 min−1 at pH 4.6. This could be due to the participation of a carboxylic acid side chain of the antibody protein, as a general acid‐base catalyst, to the heterolytic cleavage of the O‐O bond of H2O2 leading to the highly reactive iron(V)‐oxo intermediate in the peroxidase mechanism. Accordingly, the modification of the carboxylic acid residues of antibody 13G10 by glycinamide leads to a 50% decrease of the peroxidase activity of the 13G10‐Fe(ToCPP) complex.


Metal: Fe
Ligand type: Porphyrin
Host protein: Antibody 13G10
Anchoring strategy: Supramolecular
Optimization: ---
Max TON: ---
ee: ---
PDB: ---
Notes: TOF = 4.7 min-1